Havaalanı Kent Bağlantılarında Karayolu Peyzaj Düzenlemesi

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Tarih
2013-05-14
Yazarlar
Ay, Esra Aslıhan
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Kentlerin dışa açılan en büyük kapıları olma özelliğiyle ‘prestij simgesi’ haline gelen ve her gün binlerce yolcuya ev sahipliği yapan havaalanları; hem kendi içerisinde başarılı bir işletim sistemi, hem de kente bağlantısını sağlayan akslarda etkili bir karayolu ulaşım planlaması gerektirmektedir. Havaalanlarını kente bağlayan karayolu güzergahlarının temel işlevi; trafik sirkülasyonunun emniyetli, güvenli ve hızlı olarak sağlanması, peyzaj elemanları ile arasında estetik, görsel ve fiziksel bir bütünlük oluşturarak, yolu kullananlara ahenkli ve dengeli bir manzara imkanı sağlanmasıdır. Karayolu çevresinde yapılacak peyzaj düzenlemesi, güzergah boyunca tahrip olan peyzaj dokusunun yeniden oluşturulmasıyla karayolu sistemine pek çok katkı sağlayacağı gibi, yolu ilk kez kullanan insanların kenti algılayışına yön vererek, kente dair temel fikirlerinin oluşmasında etkili olur. Havayolu ulaşım talebinin gün geçtikçe artması ve İstanbul Atatürk Uluslararası Havaalanı’nın da bu büyüme trendini sürdürüyor oluşu, erişim sağlayan karayolu güzergahının kalitesinin sorgulanmasına neden olmaktadır. Günümüzde hep bir yerlere, kısıtlı zamanlarda yetişme telaşı içerisinde kalınması nedeniyle uçak yolculukları, başlangıç ve bitişinde yolcuda belirgin bir stres meydana getirmektedir. Bu bakımdan; havaalanlarını kente bağlayan karayolu ulaşım akslarının, kesintisiz ulaşım sağlaması, emniyetli ve güvenli planlanması, estetik ve görsel açıdan da güzel manzara olanakları sunması önem taşımaktadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında D-100 güzergahı; İstanbul Atatürk Uluslararası Havaalanı’na erişim sağlayan ana arter olması nedeniyle bir prestij yolu olma özelliği ve sıklıkla kent dokusunun içinden geçmesi nedeniyle kent sirkülasyonunda da önemli yeri olması bakımından incelemeye alınmıştır. Karayoluna alternatif sayılabilecek diğer ulaşım olanaklarına sahip oluşu, bununla birlikte yoğun yaya-araç sirkülasyonu ve aynı zamanda MİA’nın bir parçası olan Mecidiyeköy’den itibaren Atatürk Uluslararası Havaalanı’na kadar incelemeye alınan D-100 güzergahının; güncel hava fotoğrafları birleştirilerek şehircilik analizleri yapılmış ve mevcut potansiyeller ortaya konulmuştur. D-100 karayolu güzergahı peyzaj karakteristiği; güzergah boyunca peyzaj dokusunun nitelik farklılıkları ve peyzaj düzenlemesi yapılacak kamulaştırma alan büyüklük farklılıkları nedeniyle başlıca beş bölümde ele alınmıştır. Karayolu boyunca tespit edilen beş farklı peyzaj karakteristiği özelinde, güzergah çevresinde yapılan peyzaj düzenlemeleri değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuç olarak; Mecidiyeköy, Haliç Köprüsü, Edirnekapı, Bahçelievler ve Atatürk Uluslararası Havaalanı yakın çevresi bölümlerinin her birindeki sorunlar tespit edilmiş, peyzaj potansiyellerinin geliştirilmesi ve etki derecesinin arttırılmasına yönelik öneriler sunulmuştur.
Airports which are the symbol of prestige with being the best gates speciality and opening outside fort the cities, everyday being landlords for thousands of passengers everyday, needs to have a successful management system inside of it and needs an effective transport plannig at the axles which connect to the city. The main function of highways which combine airports to a city is provide traffic circulation in a safe and fast way, consist of aesthetics, visual and physical balance among landscape and people and provide aesthetics for the people who use the highway colourful and balanced view possibility. The landscape planning around the motorway with the becoming of landscape texture again which was destroyed along the way, providing motorway system a lot by leading to the people who are experiencing the way for the first time understanding the city, becomes effective with the main ideas of city life. People who are travelling by plane to a city for the first time consists of by taking individual air photos the first impressions about city life. Understanding the city from height of thousands of feet is about the highway net earth shapes, watery areas, the densities of building-green areas and the most important thing of city’s shape. Highway which provides different size of transport groups of circulation in day time with the green area system of arranged around it, again movement, defined- lights from the above photographs of the most evident and attractive thing. Today the number of vehicles are increasing everyday and developed and it is needed enough highway systems, the developments about the landscape of around the highway, it is essential to give importance inside the highway. To have projects of high standard highways along the highway which passes inside and along the corridor to combine way and other things to surroundings landscape, to have a connection, negative pressures of the environment (air, water pollution, as a result of salt usage soil’s barrenness, noise-visual pollution etc.) as soon as possible to eliminate, it is possible with the protection of landscape along the highway and development of it. The demand of airline transport is increasing day by day and İstanbul Atatürk Airport going on with this increase trend it becomes reason of questioning to reach the highway quality. Today to somewhere, as a result of reaching places in limited time travelling by planes at the beginning and at the end causes for the passenger to have stress. Therefore, transport axles which connect highway to airports, providing unlimited transport, planning in a safe way presenting beautiful view possibilities in aesthetics and visual way. In this work to İstanbul Atatürk International Airport providing reach and main arterial road beside being a prestige way often with the reason of city pattern, it has been examined that D-100 route which has an important place in city circulation. From Mecidiyeköy which is a part of central business district and has other possible transport ways as an alternative to highway, dense pedestrian-vehicle circulation along the route of until Atatürk International Airport by combining the actual air photographs city analyses have been done and potentials have been evaluated. This work; first of all plan staff members of highway landscape project need; precautions which will be taken within highway landscape mending, and how effective the arrangements that passes through the way the landscape arrangements, the need of highway in the matter of plan should be examined and aims to prove.The aim is that restore the habitat which is destroyed at highway routes, not only to tell the landcape pattern mending development of ecological and sustaniable works, but also to examine the town-dweller often used, the first experience of people who arrive from outside the city, on these highways which pass from city pattern, the people who use the way (driver, passenger, pedestrian, owners of the flats around the way) with this point of view, around the route landscape effective degree increase landscape arrangements that will be done and what they are. In the light of this it has been discussed about the city first impressions taken, highway routes which provide connection to airports and the prestige symbol for cities. The aim is for a prestige way, providing along the highway different characteristics and D-100 route of European part, that provides reaching to Atatürk International Airport, possible landscape planning that is the increase of effect value. D-100 highway route landscape characteristics, have been discussed mainly in five parts along the route landscape pattern quality differences and with the reason of landscape planning that will be done the area for the government size differences. Five different landscape which were confirmed along the highway in fact, around the route landscape types were evaulated and as a result of this, Mecidiyeköy, Haliç Bridge, Edirnekapı, Bahçelievler and close to Atatürk :International Airport each of the part problems were defined, and it has been presented about landscape potentials developments and offers devoted to affect degree increase. The first thing that must be done the overpass of Mecidiyeköy, to protect the building users from noise which is because of vehicle and finding out the obstacles. As a result of not finding enough place for plantal screening, as it was given in Guangzhou sample, to protect effective key from noise and dust, driver’s eye level height was designed as transparent -it can be related to town identity- to build an artificial noise barriers. The highway advertisements along the way outside of the buildings and on every surface must be limited because speed limit is high on this type of highways so it is important to prevent the care of drivers. Therefore, such protections shoul be taken like advertisements should be given in traffic flow running in one way or taking under control of covered area size and not to contain a lot of colours details. Along Haliç Bridge, outfit members beside functions to give importance to its aesthetics specialities from D-100 other parts it has to be planned differently. Like in HongKong sample, the lights which will mention bridge’s visual and aesthetics specialities and margent-obstacle designs must be done changes. Although the area is so little for plant to grow it must be encouraged between bridges and corridors which have wire to protect possible accidents. It is important concrete margents which look towards the way, at the margent fixed light member with building, lighting the inside of the way, in cold and rainy weather for driver, according to asphalted surface condition to provide possibility and night bridge lights making stronger from the view of effect degree increase. In Edirnekapı part, not to do terracing wall at slope areas in a gradual way, building in an only one height serves the driver away from aesthetics strong-solid view. Thus, way area defined soften the high concrete relying upon walls contructional impression choosing the way of natural planting on the wall will provide a positive effect. And what is more, along the way the first example in this area pedestrian overpasses used and overpasses close to AHL often repeated inside flower pots for each season plant usage, by driver a noneffective view shows. While going both from the way and speed of the vehicle not plants for season it is possible to see the plastic flower pots which were put regularly and a little detail for planting, it can not provide essential green effect. It’s compulsory to do herbal screening in green areas in Bahçelievler part beside the way left nationalization spread rather convenient and existing building areas close to the way. Thus, like in the Guangzhou sample starting from coniferous tree which falls the leaves coniferous plant group and plant group for season shading the place and towards the way the height is decreasing it must be done thick herbal screen as much as possible. On the parts which are not suitable for high plants grow and these areas Around the motorway becomes narrow, noise walls designed with to nature from convenient equipments it must be encouraged a natural landscape by using, in front of it, medium tree. Thus, from the point of driver not only nature will be seen positive, flat user who is close to the highway, will be provided to develop a positive psychology about the highway which has a heavy traffic. Moreover, in this area plant usage in each season, along the slopes it has been built as to consist of design. However, instead of this example, which presents an effective visuality and repeats itself constantly, by using plant group for each season and area hiding, from growing conditions in accordance with each other, mulching which will be done designs on the surface, changing the type of grass or stones etc. examples will be more effective. The other point is that must be noticed metrobus stops take place in this part, providing the control of pedestrian movements, by planning with designs of pedestrian overhead crossings following each other, consisting of same areas, providing comfort for pedestrian, and not to harm to the concentration of driver, tidy, clean visuality. At the limited parts where metrobus users stop, instead of plants which continue their development in a difficult condition and in concrete cases, seat groups which will provide the need of waiting people, kiosks, exhibition halls etc. must be full of these activities. Along the D-100 route providing the movements of pedestrians in a particular standard by taking under control of not to warn the driver and to make it comfortable with using it again along the way only one type of overhead crossing area solving, presenting clean and aethetics visuality, it must be mentioned with suitable design or a new contest by the municipiality. The main points that must be noticed on the route of AHL and close to it, developing the new projects about the city identity, beside the aesthetics and visuality choosing suitable plant types, described green spaces beside the motorway and making it whole with the way it can be put in order like these. Plant groups at the green areas must be arraged again, type choices must be done with effective visuality. Moreover at the traffic islands which have huge green area with the aim of emphasis when it was done only one type of planting to emphasize for the area aesthetics it must be increased for night point of view with LED lights it must be made stronger. Generally around the world airports who give important messages in the name of sustaniable (management of waste, decrease of noise, green building samples etc.) it is expected to show same sensibility at the reach reach route. With this aim, landscape planning that will be done, will be able to provide contribution for the productivity of the soil and harmony for the nature conditions in a best way, it will need less water, fertilizer and medicine in comparison with other plant types, these types will be chosen and it must be provided for the people who use the way to get a view which is close to natural views. However, as it was given in Bangkok example, as a prestige way and the last route to the AHL making it rich with the city identity points which will be the one of the best and it will increase the degree of effect for the people who use the way as it gives messages for sustainable development.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2012
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2012
Anahtar kelimeler
Karayolu peyzaj düzenlemesi, hava alanı ulaşımı, D-100, Highway landscape planning, highway routes to airport, D-100.
Alıntı