İstanbul yerleşme alanı içinde görülen arazi kullanım kararları ve yüksek yapılarla ilgili alan tahsislerinin değerlendirilmesi

dc.contributor.advisor Giritlioğlu, Cengiz Erzene, Şafak Ilıca
dc.contributor.authorID 14329
dc.contributor.department Şehir ve Bölge Planlama 2023-02-24T10:56:35Z 2023-02-24T10:56:35Z 1991
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991
dc.description.abstract Bu çalışmada son yallarda İstanbul'da gündeme gelen yüksek yapıların fiziki mekanda dağılım düzeni planlama açısından incelenmiştir. Bu ilkeye göre konu genelden özele doğru ele alınmış ve karşılaştırmalı olarak değerlendirilmiştir. 1. Bölümde şehirciliğin evrimi çerçevesinde Avrupa ülkelerinde ve Amerika'daki şehir şemaları süreç içindele alınmış ve yüksek yapıların ilk olarak görüldüğü A.B.D'deki şehirleşme olgusu incelenmiştir. NewYork ve Chicago şehirlerinin arazi kullanım kararları ile mekanda yer alan yüksek yapı ilişkisi irdelenmiştir. 2. Bölümde Türkiye'de şehirleşme politikaları ve planlama kararlarına değinilerek, şehirleşme olgusu belirlenmiştir. Ülkedeki planlama düzeni sosyo-ekonomik geliş meler pralelinde değerlendirilerek Avrupa ülkeleri ve Amerika ile karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır. 3. Bölümde Türkiye için yapılan değerlendirmelere koşut olarak İstanbul Yerleşme Alanı içinde arazi kullanım kararları ile fiziki mekan ilişkisi vurgulanmıştır. Yüksek yapıların mekanda dağılım düzeni plan ve yasa çerçevesinde incelenerek, alan tahsisleri şeklinde alan konumlanan yük sek yapıların, şehrin makroformuna etkileri yerseçimi kararlarının İstanbul Metropoliten Alan için yapılacak plan çalışması içinde değerlendirilmesi belirtilerek, alanda yerseçimi için alan önerileri yapılmıştır. Plan bütünü için kaçınılmaz olan yasal düzenlemelerin yapılarak İstanbul'un silust ve tarihi doku özelliklerinin gözönüne alınarak plân çalışması yapılması gereği vurgulanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract In Turkey, the uncontrolled land use and the increase of population density, caused a variety of urbnization, problems in largeicities i.e. İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir since 195D*ies. The tall buildinge has gained large popularity while intensity of buildinge increased in some regions of cities. In the urbanization process, analysing the problem which are caused by the demand of residing in the verticel dimension, is the aim of this study. The tall buildinge whose numbers increased repidly in Istanbul and the factors tnat causes them to exist, investigated in tnis study. In this manner, the problems tnat the highrise buildings cause in İstanbul where is growing uncontrolled and unplanned, were analyzed. Chapter ı is the part of the study,, which the evolu tion of the high rise buildinge in tne sense of urbanization and U.S. A is the birthplace of tnese kind of buildings in U.S.A the birthplace of tnem. Therefore the reasons to construct the tall buildings and the relation between the tall buildings and the form of the city, especially in NewYork City and Chicago, were focused. In the nineteenth century,, the developent of steel industry and the lift systems affected the constructing system, and caused to start the constructing*! the tall buildings. During the urbanization process, which took an acceleration from industrialization, social structure developed with the aconomical structure of the country. One of the important reasons of the rapid growth of the American economy was the capital brought by the immigrants from Europe. The emigrants, who had emigrated to this country in order to obtsin new opportunities and better ı ? living conditions worked for getting maximum benefit. VII The industrial, technological and economical developments brought out constructing of tall buildings as the symbol of the power and wealth. The reason of this; U.S. A was a young country the American cities had not a silhouette like some historical and cultural European cities. Therefore, there wasn't any constraint to construct the tall buildings: in the central buss&neess districts where the land was very worth of money and so using the land in vertical dimension was very profitable. In order emphasize the human factor in the urbanization process, some requlations were made in the law. The new rules of planning made in compulsary to put some green ;> places in arid arond the high-rise building blocks. These regional laws leqislated in 1930'ies, ordered to construct the buildings lower and in ziqqurat shape, to prevent the streets from being sunless valleys. In chapter II, the urbanization problems and urban policy in Turkey are studied. The development of urban area is analyzed in five periods since 1923 up today. The special cases of the cities Ankara and İzmir forced to start the new planning studies in the first five years period of the Republic of Turkey. Ankara had been a small town before it was accepted to be the capital city of Turkey. Therefore two local improvement ;plans were studied by Heussel for the old town and new town of Ankara in 1924. As Izmir is ai city which was demolished by burning, it was necessary to rebuild ant to organize an improvement plan. Thus the partical improvement plan of Izmir was' made by Rene Dange. The second period starts from 1928 and continues up to 1940. In the beginnings of this period, although the in dustrial investment attemps has been encoureged arid certain important industrial project has been executed by the goverment. This great dynamism tnat was created by the economical improvement and social revolutions effected the urbanization works positively. In 1928 Prof. Herman Jansen produced a work on an improvement plan for Ankara, but the very rapipVgrowth of the city made it inoperative in a short term. VIII In the third period (from 1040 to 1956), the structure of population increase has been changed in Turkey, The urban population has started to increase and rural population has started to decrease in this period. Economical development in the big cities, led to start the process of the urbanization. There has been a rapid structural change in Turkey since 1920'ies. The most important and easily seen result of this changement is the high density of urbanization in some cities such as Istanbul, Ankara İzmir. As a result of the rapid increase of urban population, some Important urbanization arides, such as the lack of housing, the migration to the big cities especially Istanbul, Ankara, İzmir. In order to regulate some planning work, the newlaw (No:67B5) come in to the force and the ministry established for planning and "İller Bankası" was established. İller Bankası suports the municipalities for some public projects by giving long term credits. This made the local authorities to be able to make expert planners and architects to design the plans. In the former period Turkey yas like a closed box in the economical and political mean. Because, the main policy in economy had been focused on goverment hand. Every investment had been tried to realise by goverment. But after the II nd World (Jar there was; a economical authority to change the policy and give chance to private sector for improving the industry. This term is important for population increase, after 1923, the yang Republic of Turkey was in the right way for solving the basic and common health problems. Therefore the deadrate started to decrease. These and the national policy about the population lead to a rapid population increase. The fifth period starts from 1960 and comes up to now. In this period State Planning Organization has been established. And this organization has started to make economical, agricultural, industrial and urban ;! development plans for five years term. Six development plans ave been made till to day but if is not possible to say that the realizations of those plans have been successfull IX Consequently, the economical development and social structure of Turkey is different from other countries, the urbanization process that we tried to summarize above, developed in a different way. Those differences can be seen in İstanbul which is the biggest city of Turkey. The economical and urban development proceeded! in an unbalancad way between west and east regions for regional size like the other development countries. The land use decisions on the building area of İstanbul are analyzed in chapter 3. Detailed information about the structure of population and the structure of economy of have been given in this chapter. In this chapter the urbanization of Istanbul was examined and the problems that have been occured during this period, were determined. Since the population density is different zone to zone, İstanul has became a metropol which have several distributed centers. Economical and social improvement process of Turkey realised in different way from Europe and USA. The increase of population density which was storted with migration, generally in big cties like İstanbul led to start the urbanization process. In the last yearshigh rise buildings have been started to establish in İstanbul which suffers from the lach of housing, gecekondus, traffic and infrastructure problems and this phenomeneen has changed the foem and silhouette of the city. These buildings have been established for office and hotel buildings. The landusei decisions taken by goverment in the frame of Touristic Encouragement Law led to establish some high hotel buildings without any thought of planing. The effects of the highrise building blocks which are constructed thanks to these papulation and density inceaser land use decisions will lead the current problems to become un solvable. It is very important to investigate the ı capasity of transportation and infrastructure system for the plan and function, in the landuse decisions. İstanbul city the largest provin'ce Df Marmara region of Turkey, with its 5712 m area. Since it has been the most imporoved city (for economical state, Istanbul can be thoughte the capital city of Turkey in the economical man ner. The important part of Turkishh industry corparation, holdings, banks, insurance copraretions and press are placed in Istanbul. In 1950'ies a lange number of tractors were brought on to the rural area. Therefore an important unemployed population increased. And these people had no chance except the migration to urban area especially to Istanbul. So the population of Istanbul increased rapidly. Naturally some economic and social hard problems showed themselves; Housing-shortage, unemployment gecekondu infrastructure an e.t.c. The landuse decisions of high rise buldings generally business and trade centers, mostly are the result of the studies which are not available to do macro plans. As a resultof this unplanned progress some problems, are occured in Istanbul. The lands of the high rise buildings should be planned according to the metropolitan plan of Istanbul. These are; * Transportation problems * Infrastructure problems * Bad effects to the (silhouette) * Affects to the density which makes it more and more, The landuse decisions of high rise buildings should be thouhg as a whole we have to think the whole city and the land use decisions should be supported by the laws about this subject Unless the macro plans is done, the high rise buildings will be a problem of unplanced growth of teh city, not the result of the improvement. en_US Yüksek Lisans
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
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dc.subject arazi kullanımı tr_TR
dc.subject kentleşme tr_TR
dc.subject yerleşim alanları tr_TR
dc.subject yüksek yapılar tr_TR
dc.subject İstanbul tr_TR
dc.subject land use en_US
dc.subject urbanization en_US
dc.subject settlement areas en_US
dc.subject high structures en_US
dc.subject Istanbul en_US
dc.title İstanbul yerleşme alanı içinde görülen arazi kullanım kararları ve yüksek yapılarla ilgili alan tahsislerinin değerlendirilmesi
dc.title.alternative The Study for the land use decisions and the area assignment of high rise buildings at metropoliten area of İstanbul
dc.type Tez
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