Tela ve kumaştaki yapışma problemleri

Arslan, Suat
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Konfeksiyonda kesimhane sonrası tela ve kumaş, yapıştırma makinasında yapıştırılır ve dikimhanede mamul haline gelir. Mamul kurutemizleme işlemi gördükten sonra kumaş yüzeyinde bazen kabarcık oluşumları görülmüştür. Bu çalışmada bunun sebepleri, soyma kuvvetinin ne olması geretiği ve hangi şartların sağlanması gerektiği araştırılır. Bunun için 6 cm x 20 cm 'lik iki farklı özelliğe sahip %100 yün kumaş ve 5 cm x 18 cm ebadındaki yapışkan tela yapıştırıldı. Her bir basınç ve zaman değeri için iki numune yapıldı, bunları biri kuru temizleme işlemi gördü diğeri hiç bir işlem görmedi ve soyma mukavemetleri ölçüldü, grafik haline getirildi.
Interiinnings are use to support, reinforce and control areas of garments suchas collars, cuffs, waistbands, hems, facing and the fronts of jacket and coats. By far the most important area of garment construction where an alternative process has significantly taken over mini sewing is in attachment of interlinings. When interlinings are sewin in, it can he diflicult on pails suchas to avoid a wrinkling of the interlining inside the collar and pucker around the edge. On large parts such as jacket fronts, the attachment of interlinings by sewing is expensive and requires skill. If a high standart is to be aciiived. The alternative process which has been developed is tliat of fusing, where by the interlining is bonded to the outer fabric by means of a termoplastic resin. The fusible interlining consists of a base cloth, which may be similar to that used for a sewin interlining, and which carries a termoplastic adhesive resin which will melt when heated to specific temperature. If it is laid flat onto the garment part and heat and pressure ate applied, the resin will flow into the fabric of the garment and it and interlining will become permanently atached. Not all garments fabrics can be fused, and there will always be some situations where sew-in interlinings continue to be used, but in the vast majority of volume garment-making today, fusing is the more common process. The reasons are botlı ecocnömic and thecnieal. The advantages of fusing fusible interlinings are as follow ; 1- In most cases the use of fusible interlinings shorter? manifacturing time with a consequent reducation in direct lobour cost. In large area applications such as jacket fronts the fusing operation replaces complex baisting operations such as reinforcing tapes it replaces sewing but in others it can actually add a stage to the manilacturing process. If the parts of collar are to be sewin togather in a jig, a sewn in interlining can be laid into the jig at the same time as the collar parts at only a small extra coast in lobour. If the collar is to be fused It must be done separetly from the assembly of the collar. 2- There is a reduction in the skill required in many operations in volving fusing compared with the sewing in of interlinings and this leads to a reducation in training time. VI. 3- It is easier to acldeve consistent quality laminating process than it is with many of the operations of sewing in ol interlinings. It. might still be claimed that, in individual cases, a craftsman using traditional canvas interlining can produce garments with a subtlety of contour, a softness and a crease recovery tliet fusing cannot, but the overall cost of manifacturing by this method is high enough to be uneompetitave far all but. a few people. 4- Fusible interlinings provide opportunities for alternative methods of garment construction, in some of which the interlining might be be said to be operating as a work aid' in the sense that the therm was \ised earlier, with all the advantages of speed and quality that work aids can canter. The means of fusing are temperature and pressure, applied over a period of time, usually in some kind of specialised fusing press. The rise in temperature at the glue line, the interface of resin and outer fabric, where the resin is active, is caused by the electric heating elements of the piess. Tliis changes the state of the resin from adry solid to a viscous fluid. Only with a appropriate pressure will this flow among the fibres of both the outer fabric and the fusible base cloth. On cooling, the resin re- sodifes and forms a bond between, the two componenls of the laminate. The heat has to pass trough fabric to activate the resin, and the requires a time measured in seconds, which varies according to the nature of the fabric and the type of resin. Every fusible lesin has an optimum temperature at which it flows satisfactorily. If this temperature is not reached tlian longer time or higher pressure will not compensate, and the bant will be weak. If the temperature rises too high the resin becomes too fluid, giving rise to strike^back and strike-trough. Most spesification of optimum temperatures for fusing include a tolerance to cope with small variations in operating conditions. hi addition to the outer fabric of tire garment, three factors determine the properties of the fused laminate : 1- The base fabric are avilable of Interlining Base fabric are available in the woven and non-woven and contractions described for sew-in interlinings and also as warp knits. The warp knits are either a locknit or weft insert construction. 2- The type fusible resin These are polylhylene, polypropylene, polyamides, polyesters, poliviuyl cliloride (PVC), plasticised polyvinyl acetate (PVA) III 3- Methods of apply big resins to base cloths There is further scope for varying the properties of an interlining and its effect on the outer fabric of a garment by varying the application of the resin to the base cloth. The most popular methods used are: a- Scalier coating b- Dry dot printing c- Paste coating Fusing equipment must provide control of three factors 1- Temperature: This must be high enough to acliive the necessary temperature at the glue line wluch will change the dry thermoplastic resin in to a partially molten state in order that it will flow. 2- Pressure: The equipment must provide enough consistent pressure to ensure intimate contact between interlining and outer cloth over the whole surface of the interlining. 3- Time The equipment must give enough time to allow the temperature and pressure to induce melting of the resin and penetration of the outer fabric in order to a produce a satisfactory bont, but not too much or strike-back and strike-trough result. 'the equipment used for fusing can be divided into : 1 - Specialised fussing presses 2- Hand irons 3- Steam presses Fabric parts prepairing for iJiis experiment are fused in the MEYER RPS Quattro-Therm that is fusing macltine classified into specialised fusing preses and if has liigh frequency fusing. But methods of fusing is very important in the confection sector. All the descriptions of the fusing process that have been included so tar, have represented it viu. as a single piece of interlining, laid resin side down, on a single piece of garment fabric, laid right side down. This is reflered to as single fusing an it. is the safest in side down. Tliis is reflered to as single fusing and it is the safest in the sense that it is easiest to set. the press conditions to achive the correct temperature at the glue line. Several other configurations are possible, both in terms of presantation of the parts to the fusing press, and in the parts that are included in the garment. Some of the variations will now be described and illustrating them will demonstrate some of tire methodes of garment construction that in volve fusible interlinings. The main variastions are: 1- Reserve fusing In this method the outer fabric lies on top of the fusible. 2- Sandwich fusing This is efectively carried out only a horizontal continiouos press where heat is applied both from above and below. Two pairs of components forming two laminates, are fused togather, with the two outer fabrics on the outside of the sandwich (of four layers) and the two interlinings on the inside. 3- Double fusing This is the fusing of two soils of interlining to the outlier fabric in the one operation. Quality control in fusing is clear from a number of statements made so far that careful control of the fusing process, after careful selection of interlinings, is essential. Assuming that a company has purchaced a press which is appropriate to its needs, and sited It where extraneous factors such as droughts will not affect it, checks must still be made on it are satisfactory. Separate checks can be made on the press factory of temperature, pressure and on the quality of tire bond being achived in the laminate. The bond enrgy of a suitmg-mterlining combination is obviously of importance, in the sense that a certain minimum value of adhesion is necessary If the bond is to t>e satisfactory in wear, dry cleaning, wetting, etc. Almost equally important, however is the extent to wliich the adhession varies from point to point over the area of the laminate, and in particular the variation in band strength over short distances of the order of 0.5 inch. This is become such variations are associated with the occuarence of an effect termed bubling or blistering. If the bond is locally weak, even though on the average the bond energy is satisfactory, the fwo fabrics may, on wetting or dry-cleaning, on simply on repeated flexing, seperate over smal IX. Figure 1, Blisters or bubbles on the outher fabric areas; any differential shirinkage between outer fabric and interlining, which may occur subsequently, will cause these small areas to rise slightly and show as blisters or bubbles on the lace of the outlier fabric, giving an appearance winch is quite unacceptable commercially. Plate I shows a case of such blistering, photographed under oblique illumination which emphaises the effect. 'litis experiment and exemination tike this ace made to prevent the problems as euceling and blistering. I'm experiment, firstly fabric and interlining ate cut (6cm * 20cm - 5cm * 18cm ), and then interlining is laid on to fabric. Prepare samples goes trough the fusing machine (MEYER). Half of the fused samples have an extra process as dry-cleaning, the others have not. After tltis process is, all of them are stripped for determination of band strength with Dinamometet. These values obtaind are become grapluc to compare the results.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
kumaşlar, tela, fabrics, buckram