Organizasyon teorileri ve alüminyum sektöründe teknoloji-organizasyon ilişkisi

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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Joan Woodward, 1553-1958 arasında, Güney Essex Tekno loji Kollejinde, Birleşik Devletler Ekonomik Yardımlaşma Birimi yardımları ile küçük bir insan ilişkileri ünitesi kurarak, endüstri ve ticarette analitik, sosyal bilimlerin gelişimlerini hızlandırmayı amaçlayan bir projeye başladı. Kurulan birimde ortaya konan araştırma projesi, ko lejin yakın çevresindeki yüz kuruluşun, birçok ayrıntı yanında, özellikle organizasyonel yapıların incelenmesi şek lini aldı. Araştırma sadece üzerinde çalışılan firmaların organizasyon yapılarının farklılıklarını değil, aynı zaman da benzer yönetimlerinde farklı sonuçlar üretebileceğini gösterdi. Klasik yönetim teorisi olarak bilinen bir sis temi benimsemiş olan firmaların, ticari açıdan bakıldığın da her zaman başarılı olamadığı görüldü. Üzerinde çalışılan firmalardaki organizasyon yapılarının farklılıklarının birçoğunun, üretim tekniğinin farklılığından olduğu anlaşıldı. Çok çeşitli ihtiyaçlarla yüklü, farklı teknolojilerin uygun bir yapıda görülebileceği açıktır. Fonksiyonel ve formel bir bütünsellik içeren kuruluşların ticari açıdan da başarılı oldukları kanıtlandı Daha sonra bu düşünceler yönetim biliminin öyle bir parçası oldularki, kitapçığın yayınlandığı sırada neden o denli tartışmalara yol açtığı anlaşılamadı. Çalışmanın asıl tezi "uyguladıkları üretim teknolojilerine uygun organizasyon yapısına sahip endüstri organizasyonlarının ti cari açıdan başarılı oldukları" idi. Woodward, belirgin prensiplerin denenmeden propogasyonunun yapılmasından rahatsızdı. Bu nedenle mevcut organizasyon teorilerini sı nama kararı aldı. Güney Essex' te bulunan firmalarda çeşitli bilgileri alarak çalışmalarından şu sonucu elde etti: Teknoloji, Organizasyon ve başarı arasında ilişkiyi gösteren, bir yöneticinin anlayabileceği işaretler vardır, Bu ilişkinin anlaşılması, sadece organizasyonel yapıya uygun tekniklerin gelişmesine yol açmayacak, aynı zamanda, organizasyonel değişmenin teknolojik gelişme ile kendili- ğinden olmasına yol açacaktır. Türkiye Alüminyum Sektöründe benzeri bir araştırma nın yapıldığı bu tez, Alüminyum Sektöründeki firmaların organizasyonu hakkında çok net bir fikir vermiştir. Çalışmanın tüm araştırmacılara ışık tutmasını diliyorum.
agreeing to sponsor a research project in the management organization field and finance it for four years from Counterpart Funds derived from U.S. Economic Aid, under thp I"! n n rH '+. innal Airl Rr.hptnp. the Conditional Aid Scheme. The Project, formed part of this Committee's wider programme had aimed at speeding the development of the analytical social sciences in industry and commerce. It had been felt that part of the resources available should go to the technical colleges as owing to their close working relationship with local industry, adequate facilities for field research would readily be available for them. The research project had carried out by the unit took the form of a broad survey of the organizational structure of a hundred firms in the catchment area of the college, supplemented by some more detailed case studies. The main part of the field work of the crriginal study had been completed early in 1958, and after the VI findings had been discussed with representatives of the firms that had participated, a short account of the in vestigations had been published by the Department Df Scientific and Industrial Research. The research had shown not only that the firms studied varied considerably in their organizational structure, but also that similar administrative expen- dients could lead to wide variations in result. Firms in which organizational structure had reflected an imp licit acceptance of what had come to be known as classical management theory had not been always the most successfull from a commercial point of view. This theory therefore had not appeared to be ade - quate as a practical guide tD those responsible for the organization of industry. Many of the variations had found in the organizati onal structure Df the firms studied however had appeared to be closely linked with differences in manifacturing techniques. Different technologies imposed different kinds of demands to be met through an appropriate struc ture. Commercially successfull firms seemed to be those in which function and form had been complementary. These ideas had become so much a part of management thinking that it had become difficult to understand why the booklet created su much controversely at interpreted by some of reviewers as undermining completely the principles and concepts of classical theory, and by teachers of management subjects as an attack on management education. The main thesis was "Industrial Organizations in which design their formal organizational structures to fit the type of production technology they employ are likely to be commercially successfull." In 1953's the view which dominated management education was that there was "one best way to organize" although there were at least twD competing traditions on which this "on best way1 was founded. On the one hand students and managers were taught how to desing formal structures by applying principles of scientific management; on the other hand, a great deal of emphasis was placed on achieving the best management style in accordance with the work of Mayo and his associaties in the human relations tradition. Vll Woodward was uncomfortable in propagating such definite principles of management without putting them to some sort of emprical test. Furthermore, her contacts with local industry showed her that a common and complex problem facing many organizations was the relationship of line and staff personnel. So, she decided to test the current theories of organization. In general, she adres- sed herself to the following questions: How and why do industrial organizations vary in structure and why do some structures appear to be associated with greater success fur the organization than others. Haying decided on a study of organization structure, with special reference to line and staff relationships, Woodward chose a two stage research strategy. The first stage involved a broad survey of industrial plants loca ted in south Essex and thus easily available to researchers from their base at the local college of Technology. Firms employing less than 1D0 people were excluded and of the remaining 11D firms in the area 91 percent agreed to co-operate. General trends which emerged in this first stage were then explored in depth through detailed case studies of just a few of these firms in the second stage of the research. The following information was collected from all larger firms in the area: 1)- Histroy, background and abjectives 2)- Description of the manufacturing process and methods 3)- Forms and routines through which the firm was organized and operated. k)- Facts and figures that could be used to make an assessment of the firms' commercial success. Woodward comments; "The demonstration of a link bet ween technology, organization and success has practical significance for the industrial manager, it can lead not only the development of techniques heppful in the ap praisal of organization structure, but also make it pos sible to plan organization change simultaneously with technical change." With reference of Woodward's study and her inter pretations, I decided to make such a research in metallurgy industry. vm First of all, to get reliable results in a survey study I needed at least 2D firms to co-operate, in order to layout statistical conclusions. Additionally, it was so clear that I didn't have the enough time or opportinity for a four years study, as woodward did. That's why, I decided to study on one of the basic sectors of the industry "The Aluminium Industry" uhich seemed to be more settled down comparing with the others, At the first step, by the help of Turkey Aluminium Industrialists and Businessman Association I determined the firms uhich I'd cooperate during my thesis and clas sified them looking in a technical view. On her study Woodward seperated technology in three groups as simple, moderate and advenced, then she found correlations between organization,' technology and success. Following Woodward on this subject my classification also included the firms, techbnological structure as simple, moderate and aduanced. During this classification the only problem I met was the absence of an advanced technology. Advanced technology could be in fact, represented with the well-developed Electronic Sector in Turkey. But as you know, the number of firms are not enough to make reliable comparison. That's why, I chose the Aluminium Industry as my thesis subject and worked Dn. In this sector first of all I studied on the organi zations of the firms deal with Aluminium. But to follow my thesis, the readers had to know organization theories including the classical, neo-classic and modern. Also, my reference research evaluated the survey according to the classical theory. But the conclusions of this research just were one of the first seeds of the modern organization theory. I added my survey studies and my conclusions to the end of my thesis. ix Hoping that this thesis will be useful and will illimunate the students who'll study on this subject, I want to come an end with an article taken from a newspaper; December 25 th 1989 dated Dünya by Oktay Güvemli from Marmara University: Technological development turn out to be true in four steps. 1)- Using the current capacity 2)- Enlarging the capacity 3)- Producing machines 4)- Producing Technology. Today, Japan, one of the well-developed countries, is at the fourth step. And Turkey is still between the second and the third steps. I really have to mention that R&D expenses in Japan is 350-400 $ per each but in Turkey it is just 2.3$. Finally, I want to invite you to think about this difference !
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1990
Anahtar kelimeler
Alüminyum endüstrisi, Metalurji sektörü, Organizasyon, Organizasyon, Teknoloji, Yönetim, Aluminum industry, Metallurgy sector, Organizasyon, Technology, Management