Çatalca vilayetindeki tarihi kırsal alan camilerinin mimari analizi ve koruma sorunları

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Tarih
2018
Yazarlar
Giray Küçük, Sezgi
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Çatalca, geçmişten günümüze İstanbul'un savunmasında önemli rol oynamış, kentin gıda ve su gereksinimini karşılayan, Osmanlı döneminde yeşil doğası sebebiyle pek çok çiftlik ve mesire alanına ev sahipliği yapan bir yerleşim olmuştur. Bu yerleşim padişah ve vezirlere avlanma olanağı sunmuş, burada zamanla av köşkü, hamam, cami, mescit, çeşme gibi çeşitli yapılar inşa edilmiştir. Bu yapı gruplarından bazıları zaman içerisinde işlevini yitirmiş, bazıları farklı birer işlevle kullanılmış, bazıları ise özgün fonksiyonunu koruyarak günümüze gelmiştir. Cami ve mescitlerin bir kısmı savaşlar, doğal afetler, nüfus değişimi gibi nedenlerle günümüze ulaşamamıştır. Çalışma kapsamında, Osmanlı yönetim sistemi içerisinde zaman içinde farklı dönemlerde köy, nahiye, sancak ve vilayet olarak tanımlanan Çatalca Vilayeti içerisinde, günümüze ulaşabilmiş cami ve mescitler incelenmektedir. Günümüzde İstanbul'un batı ilçelerinden Silivri, Çatalca, Büyükçekmece, Arnavutköy ve Esenyurt, geçmişteki Çatalca Vilayeti'nin sınırları içerisinde kalmaktadır. Başakşehir, Küçükçekmece ve Tekirdağ ise bu vilayete komşu yerleşimlerdir. Çatalca Vilayeti ile ilgili haritalarda, vilayet sınırları net olarak belirlenmediğinden, sınırların yakın çevresindeki tarihî camiler de analoji oluşturmak amacıyla çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. Son yıllarda İstanbul'un batıya, Çatalca Vilayeti sınırlarına doğru hızla genişlemesi, pek çok tarihî kültür varlığı için tehdit unsuru oluşturmaktadır. Bölgenin tarihî camileri de tehdit altındaki kültür varlıklarımızdandır. Kubbeli camilere, tarihî olmalarına karşın kırma çatılı camilerden daha fazla önem verilmesi, bu gruptaki camilerin hızla yok edilip yerlerine kubbeli camilerin yapılması sorununu doğurmuştur. Bu çalışma kapsamında, uzun bir süredir ciddi tehdit altında bulunan tarihi camilerin tespit edilmesi ve bu yapıların koruma sorunlarının ele alınması hedeflenmiştir. Tezin ilk aşamalarında, önce alan çalışması yapılmış, kültür varlığı tarihî yapılar fotoğraf ve çizimlerle belgelenmiştir. İlgili belediye ve müftülüklerden söz konusu camiler hakkında bilgi ve belgeler derlenmiştir. Tarihî camiler ile ilgili en doyurucu bilginin alındığı kurumlar; İstanbul 1 Numaralı Kültür Varlıklarını Koruma Bölge Kurulu Müdürlüğü Arşivi, T.C. Başbakanlık Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü İstanbul 1. Bölge Müdürlüğü Arşivi, T.C. Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi olmuştur. Bunlar dışında pek çok kitap, süreli yayın, ansiklopedi ve haritalardan da faydalanılmıştır. Tez kapsamında Çatalca Vilayeti'nde 31 tarihi cami, 2 tarihi minarenin varlığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu camilerin 22'si kırma çatılı kırsal alan camileri, 3'ü kubbeli ve tek minareli sadrazam/vezir camileri olup 6'sı kilise olarak inşa edilmiş, 1923-1930 yılları arasında Yunanistan ve Türkiye arasındaki nüfus mübadelesi sonrası camiye çevrilmiş yapılardır. Çalışma alanında yer alan 2 tescilli minare de, günümüzde mevcut olmayan kırsal alan camilerinin günümüze ulaşmış minareleridir. Yapılan araştırmalar, kubbeli camilerin merkezlerde, kırma çatılı camilerin genellikle köylerde konumlandığını ortaya koymaktadır. Bu durum, cami inşasında yerleşimlerdeki nüfus yoğunluğunun dikkate alındığını göstermektedir. Çalışmanın geniş bir bölümünü oluşturan kırma çatılı kırsal alan camileri, tek katlı, büyük çoğunluğu dörtgen planlı harime sahip, minareleri batıda konumlanan, taş duvarlı, çatısı kiremit ile örtülü ve ahşap minberli mütevazı yapılardır. Bunlar, kendi içinde inşa tarihlerine göre sınıflandırılmıştır. Bu sınıflandırmaya göre 2 cami 15. yüzyıla, 4 cami 16. yüzyıla, bir cami 17. yüzyıla, 5 cami 19. yüzyıla ve bir cami 20. yüzyıla tarihlenmekledir. 9 caminin inşa tarihi ise net olarak bilinmemekle birlikte, bunlar hakkındaki belgeler derlenerek inşa tarihleri hakkında çıkarımlar yapılmıştır. Kubbeli camiler, vilayet ve nahiye merkezlerine konumlanmış, kırsal alan camilerine göre daha büyük, kubbeli kare planlı, tek minareli, anıtsal yapı ve görünüme sahip camilerdir. Kilise-camiler ise dönüşüm sürecinde plan şemalarını büyük ölçüde koruyan, dikdörtgen planlı, çoğunluğu üç nefli kültür varlıklarımızdandır. Anılan kilise-camilerin büyük çoğunluğu yakınına yeni cami inşa edilince kullanım dışı kalmıştır. 1950 sonrası yapım tarihli camiler, kültür varlığı değeri taşımadığından. Yerinde incelenen camiler dışında pek çok kaynakta, eskiden var olan camilerin isimlerine rastlanmıştır. Bunlar da ayrı bir bölüm haline getirilerek tez kapsamına alınmıştır. Çatalca Vilayeti'nin batı komşusu olan Tekirdağ Vilayeti'ndeki Çatalca sınırına en yakın camiler, analoji oluşturmak amacıyla incelenmiş ve ayrı bir bölüm haline getirilmiştir. Bu bölümün sonunda, Tekirdağ ve Çatalca vilayetlerindeki camiler birbirleri ile kıyaslanmış ve her iki vilayette yer alan camilerin plan şemalarının benzerlik gösterdiği saptanmıştır. (Bu durum, vilayet sınırlarının aslında yapay bir sınır olduğunu göstermektedir.) Tezin sonuç bölümünde tarihi kırsal alan camilerinin korunmasına engel unsurlar, "5. Çatalca Vilayeti'ndeki Tarihi Camilerin Koruma Sorunları" başlığı altında saptanmış ve gözler önüne serilmiştir. Bunlar kısaca; nüfus artışı sebebiyle camilerin yetersiz kalması, camilerin tescilsiz olması, camilere yapılan izinsiz müdahaleler, deprem, yangın, heyelan gibi doğal afetler nedeniyle fiziksel tahribat veya camilerin işlevsiz kalması, kırma çatılı camiyi kubbeliye, özgün "kısa" minareleri yüksek minareye çevirme isteği, muhdes malzeme ile onarım, betonarme ek yapımı olarak sıralanabilir. Bu sorunlara getirilen çözüm önerileri, sonuç bölümünde aktarılmış ve tarihi kırsal alan camilerinin korunmasının önemi vurgulamıştır. Son yıllarda hız kazanan restorasyon çalışmalarıyla bu camilerin korunması konusunda önemli adımlar atılması sevindiricidir. Çatalca Vilayeti içerisindeki tarihi camileri, mimari ve koruma sorunları bağlamında bütüncül olarak ele alan bu çalışmanın belgeleme açısından literatürdeki büyük bir eksikliğe cevap vereceği düşünülmektedir.
Çatalca, has been a settlement that plays an important role in the defense of Istanbul from past to present, which meets the food and water needs and hosts many farm and promenade areas due to the green nature in the Ottoman period. It is also known to be a hunting center of the region during the Byzantine and Ottoman periods due to its rich topography and close proximity to Istanbul. This settlement provided the possibility of hunting to the sultan and viziers and here various structures such as hunting pavilion, hamam, mosque, masjid and fountain were built in time. Some of these building groups have lost their function over time, some of them have been used with different functions, others have come to present by preserving their original function. Some of the mosques and masjids couldn't survive because of wars, natural disasters, population changes, etc. Within the scope of the study, the mosques and masjids which have reached to the present day were examined in Çatalca district. Çatalca was included in the Ottoman administration system as villages, townships, provinces and district over time. Until 1850, Çatalca, a sub-province of Eyüp Kadi, formed an independent administrative unit with the name of "Livâ-yı Nevâhî-i Erbaa" with Büyükçekmece, Küçükçekmece and Terkos. Later on, it became a sanjak connected to the state of Edirne and then bound to Bab-ı Zaptiah Administration and in 1880 it was commemorated directly with the name of sanjak together with Büyükçekmece, Küçükçekmece, Silivri, Terkos and Kurâ-yı Suyolu and connected to Şehremaneti. It separated from there in 1888 and became an independent sanjak but Küçükçekmece remained in Şehremaneti. Çatalca was declared as a province in 1924 and it continued this statue until 1926, then it became province temporarily in 1926 and later connected to Istanbul in the same year. In addition to Çatalca, Büyükçekmece, Silivri and Terkos also remained as the districts bounded to it. Today, the borders of Çatalca Province include Silivri, Çatalca, Büyükçekmece, Arnavutköy and Esenyurt which are among the districts in the west of Istanbul. As the borders of the Province of Çatalca were not drawn with clear lines in the examined maps, historical mosques in the vicinity of the province were also examined for analogy. Başakşehir, Küçükçekmece and Tekirdağ are the neighboring settlements of this district. In recent years, the rapid expansion of Istanbul to the west, to the borders of Çatalca Province, threats many cultural assets. The historical mosques of Çatalca Province are also threatened by this expansion. Regardless of its historical characteristics, giving more importance to domed mosques than the mosques with hipped roofed mosques, gives rise to the problem that the mosques with hipped roof are demolished and new mosques are constructed instead. In this study, it is aimed to determine the historical mosques which are under serious threat and to address the protection problems of these assets. The purpose of preparing this thesis is to draw attention to historical mosques threatened by the widening of Istanbul to the west, to contribute to their protection by identifying them, and to make suggestions so that they can be transmitted safely to the future. Moreover, the lack of a comprehensive study carried out up to present and which makes the architectural analysis of the mosques in rural areas and examines them within protection problems played an important role in the selection of this topic as thesis. In the first stages of the thesis, field study was made first and historical buildings were documented with photographs and drawings. In the relevant municipalities and office of muftis, information and documents about the said mosques have been compiled. The most benefited institutions for historical mosques have been Istanbul 1st Regional Directorate of Conservation of Cultural Heritage Archives, Turkish Republic Prime Ministry General Directorate of Foundations, Istanbul 1st Regional Directorate Archives, Turkish Republic, The Prime Ministry Ottoman Archive. In addition to these, it was made literature scanning in the Committee of Ancient Monuments Protection Archive of Istanbul Archaeological Museums, Archives of the German Archaeological Institute, Atatürk Library, IRCICA and the Fener Greek Patriarchate Library and other libraries, and it was reached to various books, encyclopedias, journals and maps. As a result of the surveys, in the measured drawings, most of the mosques have been determined to move away from the original plan schemes with the additions they have received over time or the repairs they have undergone. Thus, it was decided that the examination should be done mainly on the restitution drawings of the mosques, and the research on restitution was emphasized. Mosques with restitution drawings in the archive file were redrawn after being controlled on site and restitution drawings. The ones which do not have projects were prepared by myself. Prepared drawings, photographs, literature information, maps and archive documents were compiled, and a separate section was created for each mosque in the thesis and transferred in related departments. In addition, inventories were prepared for all the mosques as a summary of the sections related to the mosques, and it was added to the annex of the thesis. While the historical mosques are being examined, it has been chronologically classified from old to new. Except for the drawings, a table has been prepared in which architectural features such as width, height of the mosque, additional space dimensions, aspect ratio, area, top cover, ceiling height, wall thickness, exterior facade, minaret height are expressed. Within the scope of the investigations, 31 historical mosques and 2 minarets were found in Çatalca Province. Of these mosques, 22 were built as hipped roofed rural area mosques, 3 as domed and single minareted, grand vizier/vizier mosques and 6 as church-mosques which were built as church, then were turned into mosques after the population exchange between Greece and Turkey between 1923 and 1930. The 2 registered minarets in the study area are the minarets of the rural area mosques that are not existing today. The investigations reveal that, domed mosques are usually located in the centers (2 mosques in Çatalca Province Center, and one mosque in the Silivri Town Center) and the mosques with hipped roof are located in villages. This indicates that population density in settlements is taken into account in mosque construction. The hipped-roofed rural area mosques, which make up the majority of the study, are the modest buildings with quadrangular plans, single-storey, minarets in the west, stone walls, with wooden minbar and the roof of which is covered with tiles. They are classified according to their construction history. According to this classification, there are 2 mosques in the 15th century, 4 mosques in the 16th century, a mosque in the 17th century, 5 mosques in the 19th century and a mosque in the first period of 20th century. Although the construction dates of 9 mosques are not clearly known, the documents about them have been compiled and made inferences about the dates of construction in the relevant sections. Mosques built in the 15th century are located in Büyükçekmece and Küçükçekmece. Both of them are known as "Fatih Mosque" since they were built during the reign of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. These can be said to have moved away from their original identity today, with the repairs they have seen over the years and the additions they have received. Domed mosques are monumental mosques with single-minaret and domed cube plan, and located in the province and town centers and which are larger than the rural area mosques. Another type of mosque found in the district, is the church-mosques which were formed by the conversion of the churches that were left vacant due to the fact that non-Muslims living here had to leave their places during population exchange. In the process of transformation, the planning of the churches is preserved their originality to a great extent. All the churches in the study area are Greek churches and they were built between 1831-1907. Although the construction date of one is not clearly known, it is written in the inventory, which was built in between the last quarter of the 19th century and the first quarter of the 20th century. In many sources other than those examined at the site, the names of the old mosques were found. These are also presented as a separate chapter and covered within the thesis. The mosques in the Province of Tekirdağ, the western neighbor of the province of Çatalca, were examined for analogy and turned into a separate section. At the end of this chapter, a comparison was made with the mosques in the Province of Çatalca. It was determined that three of the examined mosques in Tekirdağ Province have quite similarity to each other. Plans similar to this plan type are also seen in the Province of Çatalca. Cedid Ali Pasha Mosque, the other mosque in Tekirdağ, have a similar plan to İnceğiz Mosque in Çatalca. This shows that the provincial borders are originally an artificial boundary. At the end of the thesis, obstacles to the protection of the historical rural area mosques were identified and revealed under the heading of protection issues. These are brief; the insufficiency of the mosques due to population increase, being the mosques unregistered, physical destruction due to natural disasters such as earthquakes, fire, landslides, unauthorized interventions made to the mosque, people's demands about conversion of hipped roofed mosques to domed mosque, repair with not original material, reinforced concrete additional construction. Some solutions have been introduced to these problems. This is the fact that if the current historical mosque is insufficient, the mosque should be expanded with appendages if it is sufficient, instead of demolishing. Permission should be obtained from The Ministry of Protection of Cultural Properties for this. In this process it is essential to protect the original character of the cultural asset. If the appendages does not meet the need, a new and larger mosque can be built so as not to leave the old mosque in the shade. But in this case, the historical mosque should not be left unfunctional. Proper functioning should be provided so as not to disrupt the original properties. Thus, continuous maintenance will also be provided. The sections intended for protection from the wind, which are made to the entrance of the historical mosques, remove the mosque from its original form. Within the scope of the thesis, it is suggested to remove these elements. In case of damage to the mosque due to natural disasters such as fire, earthquake or storm, the mosque should be repaired as appropriate. For this reason, all historical buildings must be documented in detail with drawings and photographs before such a disaster takes place. Churches that remained non-functional should be restored. The ignoring of the historical value of the mosques with hipped roofs and the lower minarets can only be achieved by educating the public on this issue. Beginning from basic education level, it should be ensured that people are aware of their cultural values. With the restoration that has gained momentum in recent years and is continuing today, historical mosques are being tried to be converted to its original form and used. This is a pleasing situation in terms of protection of the rural area mosques. It is thought that this study, which collectively deals with the historical mosques within Çatalca Province, in terms of architectural and conservation issues, is considered to be a major deficiency in the literature in terms of documentation.
Açıklama
Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2018
Theses (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2018
Anahtar kelimeler
tarihi camiler, cami tasarımları ve planları, mimari koruma ve onarım, historical mosques, mosques designs and plans, Architectural conservation and restoration
Alıntı