İstanbul Art Deco Mimarisinde Cephe Ve Motif Analizi : Taksim, Cihangir, Nişantaşı, Kurtuluş Ve Şişli

Dikbaş, Mine
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
1920-40 yılları arasındaki dönemde ülkemizde de etkili olan Art Deco stilinin İstanbul'un Cihangir-Taksim-Ayazpaşa-Nişantaşı-Kurtuluş-Şişli semtlerini içine alan bölgedeki örneklerini kapsayan bu tezde, yapıların cephelerinde mimariye bağlı dekorasyonda Art Deco'nun etkileri araştırılmış ve tablolarla cephe ve motif analizleri yapılmıştır. Tezin ilk bölümünde çalışmanın amacı, araştırmanın metodu, seçilen bölgenin kentsel özellikleriyle birlikte bölgeyi seçiş sebeplerimiz ve çalışmanın sınırlamaları açıklanmıştır. İkinci bölümde, 20. yüzyıl başlarında Avrupa'da genel durum başlığı altında, Art Deco'yu hazırlayan sebepleri açıklamak üzere 20. yüzyıl başlarında Avrupa'da düşünce ortamına ve bu dönemde Avrupa mimarisinde genel eğilimlere, Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Modernizm ve bunların birbirleriyle olan ilişkisine hatırlatıcı bilgilerle yer verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde Osmanlı Devletinin Batıya açılma hareketleri ile birlikte Batılılaşmanın/Yenileşmenin 20 yüzyıl başlarında İstanbul Mimarlığı'nda görülen etkileri üzerinde durulmuştur. Bu etkileşimleri hatırlatmaya çalışırken İstanbul Mimarlığında Art Nouveau ve İstanbul Mimarlığında Modernizme Açılış başlıkları altında ise İstanbul Art Deco'sunun olgunlaştığı ortama yaklaşıldı. Dördüncü bölümde ise, incelenen bölgelerde yer alan Art Deco üslubundaki apartmanlar için yapılan envanter çalışmalarıyla ilgili olarak tablolara ve her yapının detaylı fotoğraflarına yer verildi. Ayrıca İstanbul'da yaygın kullanımı olan Art Deco cephe ve motif detayları her cephe elemanına verilen motif numarasıyla tanımlanarak detay çizimleri ile gösterildi. Beşinci bölüm olan, Sonuç bölümünde, incelenen bölgelerde yer alan Art Deco üslubundaki apartmanlar üzerinde yapılan envanter çalışmalarının sonuçlarına dayanarak elde edilen verilerle yapılan istatistik çalışmalarına ve bu çalışmayla ilgili olarak hazırlanan istatistik tablolarına yer verildi. Bu çalışmaların sonucuna dayanarak İstanbul Art Deco'sunda cephe ve motif kullanım özellikleri tesbit edilerek İstanbul Art Deco'sunun motiflerini Batı'da görülen motiflerle karşılaştırarak, Batı'daki örneklerle olan paralellik fotoğraflarla sunuldu. Tüm bilgiler ışığında İstanbul Art Deco'sunun genel özellikleri tesbit edildi.
The aim of this thesis is to analyze the characteristic features of Art Deco buildings at Taksim, Cihangir, Nişantaşı, Kurtuluş and Şişli quarters in İstanbul. The Art Deco styled buildings most characteristic are chosen to analyze. Because it is not possible to examine all of them. There are lots of examples in this area. But 123 buildings were examined and 80 of them were chosen from this area. Because of the number of buildings and being a cosmopolitan district of Istanbul we decided to study there. Art Deco is an architectural and decorative art style, popular from 1920 to 1940, which is characterized by geometric and highly stylized natural forms and ornaments. The name is derived from the title of the Paris Exposition of 1925 "Exposition des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes". Art Deco reached its peak at the Paris Exposition of 1925. The exiting world fair that was the premier showcase of Art Deco style. In 1920s and 1930s this style was known as "Art Moderne", "Modernistic", "Jazz Pattern", "Skyscraper Modern". Numerous buildings like office buildings, stores, restaurants, factories, cinemas, city halls, hotels, schools, libraries and even churches and monuments of other kind of buildings also designed in Art Deco style between 1920 and 1940 throughout the world. What are the characteristics of Art Deco? In many ways, the style defies precise definition as it drew on a host of diverse, and often conflicting influences. These were primarily from the world of avant-garde painting in the early years of century. Elements form Cubism, Russian Constructivism and Italian Futurism-abstraction, distortion and simplification-are readily evident in the decorative arts vernacular used by most Art Deco exponents. Examination of the style's standard iconography-stylized bouquets of flowers, geometric patterns including zigzags, chevrons, Egyptians motifs inspired by the openings of Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922. Other influences are Mayan and Aztec (the stepped "zigguraf shape of Aztec temples is a recurring motif) art of Central America. Another foreign influence on Art Deco designers, especially those in Paris, was tribal Africa, a source of inspiration. Mention should also be made of English Arts and Crafts Movement which, although founded on and operated along the lines of idealistic, medievalist beliefs, practices and organization, could also be said to have exerted some influence on Art Deco. VI Art Deco architectural ornamentation did not extend far beyond the French capital. Unlike America, which experienced a building boom in 1920s, Europe was in quite period of retrenchment following the devastation of the Great War. Britain has some claim to be one of the pioneers of Art Deco in the late style of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. His 1916 designs for Derngate, a house in Northampton are a consistent exercise in typical Art Deco motifs- zigzag lines, arrow shapes, overlapping squares and flat geometrical patterns. Rounded corners were a feature of Art Deco buildings, inside and out, and furniture based on geometric shapes-the circle, semicircle, triangle, octagon and cube-was very popular. Other typical motifs are sunrise, fan shaped motifs, chevrons, horizontal lines, stepped vertical decoration, cloud patterns, stylized trees, flowers and animal forms. Art Deco style, like in most of the countries around the world has influence in Turkey too between the years 1927-1940, in the new districts of Young Turkey Republic the style has given shape the most of the new buildings. In those days, the elite people in İstanbul, began living in Taksim-Talimhane, Ayazpaşa, Maçka, Nişantaşı and Cihangir. Although the effects of Westernisation on life style, cultural style, tastes and value systems were seen, starting from the 18th century, in the form of a cultural movement primarily exclusive to he administrator/elite group, the admiration that it provoked slowly started to encompass other groups, the general public, the urban population and the family. A lot of the credit for this goes to the aforementioned new legal-institutional dispositions and the changes in the system of the inter-city transportation, communication and the circulation of goods, as well as the displacement of the Court to the Bosphorus, and new western-style preferences exhibited by the seaside palaces, mansions and the imperial pavilions. The life style and gusto of the affluent non-Muslim and Levantine inhabitants of Istanbul especially of those living in Galata-Beyoğlu (these being the groups which closely identified themselves with the western style) were slowly recognized and adopted by other communities. This life style arose as the new cultural symbol and preference of the elite group as well. All this was largely caused by the traditional inhabitants who had also begun to frequent Beyoğlu, to participate in the shopping, consumption, entertainment activities and the new image atmosphere there. With time, especially the upper middle-class families, started living in the apartment houses and mansions of Ayazpaşa, Şişli and Nişantaşı, which were the newly developing northern axis quarters. However, this cultural change was one that went beyond spatial relationships, and it encompassed a series of social culture forms and components that made up and influenced daily life, from music to clothing and from furniture to types of entertainment. Therefore, housing space and forms which created the most intensive environment of this life style, had their share of the new gusto, style and value system. Republican elite sought a more complete break with tradition, at least in theory if not it actual lived experience. Throughout the 1930s the words "modern" and "contemporary" were used synonymously to designate all the novelty, progresiveness and desirable qualities of the new culture of living in western style houses and apartments with their new concepts of plan and spatial lay-out replacing the functionally undifferentiated rooms of traditional houses. VU The method used for the collection of the information was a written survey sheet for the data analysis. The sheet that was originally prepared for the study. The inventory tables developed for the study have been presented in the Appendix 4.1. The analysis of the data was through the used of a statistical software (SPSS- Statistical Package for Social Science).The data collected from the survey were coded and entered into the system which calculated all required statistics, such as the frequency distribution tables. For the drawings of the motifs and facade elements was through the used of a computer added drawing package (ACAD-Autocad Release 12). This study includes all the classified 23 basic motifs and 254 variations of the basic motifs which have been presented in the Appendix 4.2. It has been observed that the use of geometric forms like rectangular, rounded, lozenge shaped and, stylized sunburst motifs and combinations of geometric forms were more extensively used. The Art Deco style was extensively used in Istanbul in the new residential areas and residential buildings in particular during the years 1927-1940. A total of 80 buildings located in the Taksim, Cihangir, Nişantaşı, Kurtuluş, Şişli area were analyzed and inventory tables developed for the study have been presented in the Appendix 4.1. The general characteristics of Art Deco in Istanbul have been developed from the data acquired as a result of analysis carried out on 80 buildings. 1 ) The wall material is block masonry. 2) The architect and date of construction in many buildings is unknown. Ana as a result the exact date of the changes in the characteristics which are assumed to have developed at different times could not be given. 3) Almost the only element which can be regarded as a mass movement in the Art Deco of Istanbul is in the facade definition. The facade of these buildings generally contain over hanging. These have been classified as a bay windows, bow windows straight edged, semicircular and Chicago bay windows. The facades with straight edged over hangings can also be observed in the Art Nouveau applications. The use of straight edged over hangings in facades is 64% in the buildings in Taksim, 63% in Cihangir and 61 % in Nişantaşı. Those in Kurtuluş and Şişli have more of the Chicago bay window type and flat type facades. 4) The facade arrangement is usually symmetrical at the entrance floor level an asymmetrical on the upper floors. It is also observed that the asymmetrical facade arrangement of Art Nouveau can still be found along side the symmetrical facade arrangements. 31% of the buildings analyzed have a symmetrical arrangement while 69 % are asymmetrical. Of the buildings in Taksim, Cihangir, Nişantaşı and Kurtuluş 68%, 74 %, 87.5% respectively have asymmetrical facade arrangements. 5) The number of floor also showed variations according to the different areas. While in the Taksim 60%, Cihangir 56%, Nişantaşı 67%, Şişli 100% areas viii most of the buildings have 5 floors (entrance+4) in Kurtuluş on Kurtuluş Street they are less than 5 floors. Thus it has been observed that in the Kurtuluş area buildings with 3 (37.5%) and 4 (25%) floors exceed those with 5 floors (12.5%). 6) Generally there is a uniformity of style in the facades. This uniformity is more extensive in the Cihangir area. The facade elements of these buildings have been designed together and the same motifs and combinations have been used. Such uniformity of elements have been observed in doors, parapets, entrance level windows and decorative panels.(Tables 22, 54, 57, 64, 66, 71, 79, 84) 7) Doors which are one of the richest facade elements of the Art Deco of Istanbul make up one of the defining elements of the style with their forms and the 21 basic motifs used. Iron+glass (92%) has been used as the material and the rectangle as the form. It was observed that 8% of the doors analyzed had been replaced. The windows located over the doors have different forms such as oval (1.3 %) hexagonal (2.5%) skewed edged (25%) and rounded edges (7.5%) and it has been observed that the use of the rectangular (36%) and skewed edged forms were more extensively used. 8) The parapets, with their forms and the 20 basic motifs used, make up another defining facade elements of the style. The material used in the parapets is masonry (9%), iron (30%), masonry+iron (circular cross section) (52.5%). It was determined that the parapets showed some variations in the mid-section of the buildings (5%). Combinations consisting of geometric motifs (72%) have contributed to the rich variety of parapets. 9) The entrance floor windows which make up one of the determining elements of the style used in the facades are rectangular (36%), skewed edged (23%) or rounded edged (13%). Wood+glass or iron+bars and glass are the materials used. 15 different basic motifs are observed in the iron bars of the entrance floor windows. The Cihangir area in particular stands out with the richness of the motifs used. The windows in 25 % of the buildings studied had been replaced. The fact that the entrance floors 64% of the buildings studied in Taksim have been remodeled and are used as offices has effected the results of the facade and motif analysis of the area. 1 0) The materials used in the windows of the upper floors is mainly wood+glass and they are rectangular (87.5%) in form. However, in someexamples the windows of the mid floor and top floor are skew edged (7.5%) or rounded edged (5%). The change in form observed in the windows of the top floor reflects a similarity with the Art Deco of the West. This can be illustrated with the similarity observed between the Pertev Apartment (T1) dated 1933 in Taksim and Samaritaine Shopping Center building dated 1928 in Paris. 11) The use of the corner window (42.5%) in especially in facades with overhanging is a completing element of the period. The material used in these rectangular (38.8%) and skew edged (3.8.%) windows is wood+glass. 12) Combinations of geometric forms (46%) and plaster have been used in decorative facade panels, usually placed under the windows. While doing the study it was observed that occasionally panels with Art Nouveau or Neoclassical motifs were used in Art Deco style buildings. However, these were not included as unity of style was sought in the study. ix 13) Another defining facade elements of the Istanbul Art Deco are the stylized pilasters which extend uninterrupted all the way from the fist to the top floor or are sectioned at each floor. As there is no information related to the date of construction or architect of these buildings, it was impossible to determine whether the use of these stylized pilasters was an application Of the style of the period of one of a certain architect or master builder. However the fact that the stylized pilasters are observed in the Taksim (%40) and Cihangir mainly (%30) areas points towards the an early Art Deco applications. The stylized pilasters can be interpreted as column stylization which have been included in Art Deco style with the effect of Neoclassisism. 14) The pediments, which make up another facade element have been observed in 32% of the buildings studied. The rectangular (24%) and circular (8%) forms were most widely used. 1 5) The motifs used in the plaster decorative elements of the entrance halls of the buildings repeats the motif repertory of the Art Deco style. The motifs used here reflect a similarity with those used on the decorative panels. 16) The doors located in the entrance halls are usually wooden and are designed within the same style understanding. 1 7) The elevator cabins and staircase balustrades reflect Art Deco characteristics. Similarities determined the Art Deco balustrades used in Istanbul and those used in examples in Europe have been illustrated with photographs. The balustrade of the Champs-EIysees Theatre (1913) by Auguste Perret (photo no.5.3.) and those of the buildings in Istanbul Cihangir, Nişantaşı and Kurtuluş reflect considerable similarity. It could possible to say that the quality of Art Deco styled buildings in Istanbul are parallel to the foreign example. And also the motifs of Art Deco styled building in Istanbul are parallel to the foreign example.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Art Deco, Cephe, Mimarlık tarihi, Motifler, İstanbul-Cihangir; İstanbul-Kurtuluş; İstanbul-Nişantaşıİstanbul-Nişantaşı ; İstanbul-Taksim = İstanbul-Taksim ; İstanbul-Şişli, Art Deco, Facade, Architectural history, Motifs, İstanbul-Cihangir, İstanbul-Nişantaşı, ; İstanbul-Taksim ; İstanbul-Şişli