Yapı Üretiminde İşgücü, Üretkenlik, Kalite İlişkisi

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Tarih
1996
Yazarlar
Köleoğlu, M. Dilek (sanus)
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Bilgi çağım yaşamakta olduğumuz yirminci yüzyılın sonunda dünya üzerindeki insanlar hızla değişen ve gelişen teknolojiye, yaygın ileti şim ağı sayesinde kolaylıkla ulaşmakta, ve ondan gereği gibi faydalanma imkanına kavuşmuşlardır. İçinde bulunduğumuz son yirmibeş yıl, insan ların yüzyıllardır geliştirdikleri, bilgi birikimleri sonunda eriştik leri teknolojinin, dev adımlarla değişmekte ve gelişmekte olduğu,yıllar- dır. Bu hızlı değişim ve gelişim sonunda insanlar (kullanıcılar) daha önceki yıllarda olduğu gibi kendilerine sunulanlarla yetinmeyip daha gelişmişi ve kaliteliyi talep eder olmuşlardır. Gelişmiş kalitenin kullanıcılar tarafından ulaşılabilir olması ise üretkenliğin yüksek olmasına bağlıdır. Aksi takdirde istenen ve beklenen kalite düzeyine ulaşabilecek kullanıcılar sınırlı sayıda ka lacaktır. Yüksek "üretkenlik" ve "Kalite" içinse her ikisi için de te mel girdi olan 'îşgücü"önem kazanmaktadır. Bu kavramlara yönelik olarak hazırlanan tezin birinci bölümü ça lışmanın konusunu ve amacını anlatmaya yönelik, giriş bölümü olarak tasarlanmıştır. İkinci bölümde "üretim"deki genel anlamlarıyla "İşgücü", "üret kenlik", "Kalite" kavramları ile, onları tamamlayan alt başlıklar ve rilmiştir. Bu bölüm "İşgücü", "üretkenlik", "Kalite" kavramlarının birbirleriyle ilişkileri irdelenmiştir. üçüncü bölümde, bir önceki bölümde genel kavramlar olarak veri len "İşgücü", "üretkenlik", "Kalite" kavramları, yapı üretiminde yer aldıkları şekilde irdelenmektedir. Bu bölümde yapı üretiminin diğer endüstriyel üretimlere göre farklı yönleri de yer almaktadır, üç kav ramın birbirleriyle ilişkileri bölüm sonunda verilmiştir. Dördüncü bölüm daha önceki bölümlerde hem genel anlamlarıyla hem de yapı üretiminde yer aldıkları anlamlarıyla irdelediğimiz "İşgücü", "üretkenlik", "Kalite" kavramlarının, Türkiye'de bir grup inşaat firmasıyla yapılan anket çalışmasının sonunda, ülkemiz için ne ifade ettikleri irdelenmektedir. Tezin bu bölümü anket çalışması sırasında görüşülen şirket yetkililerinin yapı üretim sektörüne ilişkin yaptıkları tespitleri içeren görüşme notlarını ve ampirik çalışmanın sonucunu irdeleyerek bitirilmiştir. Beşinci bölüm, bu bölüme gelene dek yapılan teorik ve ampirik tüm çalışmaların sentezi olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu bölümde ulaşılan sonuç ile birlikte daha önceki bölümlerde tespit edilen mevcut durum ve bu durumun iyileştirilmesine yönelik öneriler geliştirilmiştir.
In the information age we're living, through people all over the world do have easly access to latest technology available due to vast and effective communication means at their disposal. Consequently, users do not suffice with what they're normally presented anymore, but seek for better 'Quality' which they're now aware of. The accessibility to improved quality for the users' depend upon the high rate of 'Productivity' If the rate of productivity is low, the number of users that require the certain level of quality will be limited. Therefore both pro ductivity and high quality are 'Musts' in production. And for achieving the high degree of productivity and quality, 'Manpower' which is the main input for both, gains great importance. Since, manpower becomes increasingly important for high pro ductivity and quality, 'Training' and 'Motivation' have direct bearing on the quality of the manpower which is indispenside for the goals' set. Above argument that is applicable especially for industrial products is valid only to a certain extent in building production VI n - for the time being. However, damages caused and lives lost due to the recent earthquakes we've had in Turkey, brought up the importance of the very same argument for the building sector also. On the other hand, Turkey's participation European Community and Customs Unity being on agenda, all the related studies and pre parations for entry have also underlined and marked the significance of the same concepts in question. The fact is that what is necessary in building production is that the goal of increasing productivity should be considered parallel to the efforts for achieving the desirable and necessary level of quality. The 'Must' for realizing it is either to employ qualified manpower and/or to improve the qualification of already employed ones. Once the 'Quality of manpower' is mentioned the priority lies in 'Training' not only in developing countries as Türkiye' but in most developed ones, also. However, there are differences in the implementations as to the length of training period, such as: While it is 200 hrs. /person yearly in. Japan, that is 2-3 hrs. /person in Turkey. In order for training the manpower or for getting the desirable productivity from the trained manpower, the manpower, himself, should be eager to achieve his work. The importance of 'Motivation' of manpower lies at this very point. In the 'Introductory' section, above mentioned concepts are given to form a framework for this thesis titled 'Manpower, Produc tivity, Quality Relations in Building Production'. In the Second Section, definitions of the concepts of 'Produc tion', 'Production factors' and being the most important one amongst the others 'Manpower' are given in the first three sub-sections. 'Productivity of Manpower' is given in the following sub-section, emphasizing the subjects of 'Training' and 'Motivation' due to its importance on the manpower that has been determined as 'A social- being who is open to self-improvement by learning' in the former three sub-sections. In sub-section 2.3.1.1. the definitions and importance of training is given and different relevant methods and programs with their aims are explained. In 2.3.1.2. 'Motivation' is dealt with, considering its aims at and effects on the manpower, productivity and the quality achieved in the product. Second section goes on with various definitions given for 'Productivity' and related to its evaluation and the factors effecting IX it. These factors are discussed under two main headlines and the result what 'No other factor in production can be compared to the efficiency of manpower' is reached at. In sub-section 2.4. the concept of 'Quality' is explained with various relevant definitions and two main tendencies for improving quality. Afterwards, definitions and benefits of 'Quality Control' are given together with its chronological development. The 'Quality Assurance' concept is also introduced due to its close relationship to the above one and its importance in the building production as well as in other sectors. At the end of Section 2., relationships amongst the three main concepts 'Manpower, Productivity, Quality' are examined with the result that manpower has the capacity of effecting productivity and quality in production in either positive or negative way depending on its own qualifications. In the third section, concepts of 'Building', 'Building Pro duction' are given besides the characteristics of building sector. Concept of manpower in building production is examined in relation to the peculiarities of the sector. With respect to the characteristics of manpower in building production, training is dealt with two possible approaches : - Training for qualified manpower - Training for non-qualified manpower. Since it is as important as 'Training', 'Motivation' is argued section 3.4.1.2. 'Training' alone does not serve the purpose and it should be supported with 'Motivation' in order to get the best result out of the work of manpower. Concept of motivation in the section, is considered by explaining the motivator factors mentioning that it is also necessary to in active the negative effects of demotivators on the manpower. Followingly, the major changes and improvements examined when training and motivation of the manpower are realized, are given. In section 3.3.1., the factors effecting the 'Productivity' in building production are given under different classifications. The common point reached at in all of these classifications is that the main factor is 'Manpower' and its qualifications. Section 3.5. covers the concept of 'Quality in Building Pro duction1 and the factors effecting the quality of building. x - Various definitions of 'Quality Control' and the legal frame work for its realization in build-in production are given in the section 3"5,.2. 'Quality Assurance' concept related to building pro duction in Türkiye is examined within the legal context» At the end of third section, the relationship of the three basic concepts iş explained with the consequence that quality of production process and the product itself, satisfaction of the user and capability of access to the determined level of quality within his financial resources depend upon not only production speed and rate of productivity, but on the qualifications of 'Manpower'. The fourth section is consisted of the empirical study under taken with the aim of examining the state-of-art of these three main concepts interrelatedly effecting the building production sector. The empirical study covers the field survey in the form of interviews and presenting questionnaires to 33 building firms in Ankara. The most important factor for the choice of the city for undertaking the empirical study is that in Ankara building firms are producing buildings mainly for the public sector which defines the norms relevant to quality of and quality control in building production. The questionnaire that was distributed to the building firms covered 35 questions. In this section, first the answers to the questions are analysed in histograms. Secondly, general consequences of the field study are given in Section 4.2.: All of the authorities to whom this questionnaire is given have the common point of view that to increase the rate of productivity, to improve the quality of the product and implementation quality control have great import ance. The other point that all authorities agree upon is that the most important factor to realize these goals, is 'Manpower'» However, different sights have appeared on the ways of training and motivation of manpower in order for improving its qualifications. Besides the manpower, the points appeared in the answers related to other two concepts of the thesis are examined interrelatedly. In the last section, the consequences related to the thesis as the whole are given: Quality is an inseparable part of and the goal of production. Increase in productivity brings forth increase in quality also. Users do have the knowledge on 'Quality' and wish to use their resources for the most convenient and the best quality. Building sector has the significance of being the 'Locomotive' of the country's economy especially in Turkey. where the building - xi - needs are great in numbers. In the globalization process of the world, the manpower should be treated, not only, as labour force, but also 'Brainforce'. Therefore, manpower should be trained and motivated in order that the quality in the production in where he takes the most important role should be reached at.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Kalite, Yapı üretimi, İş gücü, Quality, Structure production, Manpower
Alıntı