Mimari Tasarımda Ekolojik Bağlamda Biçim Ve Doğa İlişkisi

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Tarih
2012-10-08
Yazarlar
Beyaztaş, Heysem Sühan
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Bu tez çalışması, 20. yy başından bugüne değişen bilimsel, teknolojik ve ekolojik paradigmaların mimari ile olan ilişkisinin sorgulanması üzerine hazırlanmıştır. Tez çalışmasında değişen bu paradigmaların mimari tasarımda biçim-doğa ilişkisine etkilerinin irdelenmesi konu alınmaktadır. Ekolojik bağlamda ele alınan bu çalışma, değişmekte olan bilim ve teknolojinin mimari tasarımda biçimlendirme sürecinin doğayla olan ekolojik ilişkisini etkilediği varsayımı üzerine yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın giriş bölümünde doğa ve mimari arasındaki ilişkiden bahsedilmekte ve bu ilişkinin ekolojik arka planına değinilmektedir. İkinci bölümde doğanın insan, bilim ve teknoloji ile olan ikili ilişkileri irdelenmektedir. Bu irdelemede bahsi geçen kavramlardaki paradigmatik değişimlerin diyalektik bir bakış açısıyla mimaride biçim-doğa ilişkisine etkilerinin anlaşılması amaçlanmıştır. İnsanın doğaya bakışı ile bilim ve teknolojiye olan yaklaşımlarında belirlenen ikilikler doğu-batı ikilemi perspektifine ele alınmıştır. Bu bölümde ifade edilen doğu-batı ikilemi coğrafi ve siyasi bir anlamdan ziyade kavramsal bir boyutta ifade edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde ise bir önceki bölümde bahsedilen paradigma değişimlerinin ekoloji ve ekolojik mimarideki tezahürleri incelenmiştir. Ekoloji ve ekolojik mimari kavramlarının 20. yy itibariyle geçirdikleri dönüşüm ikinci bölümdeki bağlamlar dahilinde ele alınmıştır. Bu bölümde tespit edilen ‘’teknoloji, ekonomi ve bütüncüllük’’ ilkeleri, ekoloji ve ekolojik mimarinin evrimsel süreçlerine yönelik ortak unsurlar olarak ortaya konulmuştur. Dördüncü bölümde ise mimari tasarımda biçim ve doğa ilişkisi üzerine irdelemeler yapılmıştır. Bu bölümde mimari biçimlendirme yöntemleri üzerine incelemeler yapılmış ve bu yöntemlerin doğa ile olan ilişkileri irdelenmiştir. 20. yy sonrasında doğa ile yakından ilişkisi olduğu tespit edilen organik mimarlık, biyomimesis ve morfogenesis/morfo-ekoloji olmak üzere üç mimari tasarım yaklaşımı incelenmiştir. Bölüm sonunda bu yaklaşımların mimari biçim ve doğa ilişkisindeki ekolojik boyutları tartışılmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde mimari tasarımda biçim ve doğa ilişkisi bahsi geçen paradigmatik değişimler bağlamında irdelenmiştir. İkinci bölümde ele alınan düalist ilişkilerin ekoloji ve ekolojik mimarideki yansımaları üzerine çıkarımlar yapılmıştır. Bu çıkarımlar organik mimarlık, biyomimesis ve morfogenesis/morfo-ekoloji tasarım yaklaşımları içerisinde incelenmiştir. Özetle 20. yy mimarisinden 21. yy mimarisine geçişte bahsi geçen paradigmatik değişimlerin mimari biçim ve doğa ilişkisindeki farklılaşmaya etkisi üzerine bir irdeleme yapılmıştır.
This thesis is prepared on the basis of the relationship between architecture and changing scientific, technologic, ecologic paradigms since 20th century. The examination of these changing paradigms effects in architectural design and the relationship between form and nature in the context of ecology are studied in this study. This study shows that changing and developing science and technology influences shaping in architecture and this influence helped architecture form turn into an ecologic character taking advantage of nature. The effects of nature on architectural form varies from time to time. The technological situation after the scientific and industrial revolution had created new kind of relationship between architecture and nature. It is known that this relationship has been affected the ecological character of the architecture in negative way. But also there had been some approaches to the modern architecture in ecological perspectives like organic architecture which is pioneered by architects such as Louis Sullivan an Frank Lloyd Wright. Throughout the 20th century, the dynamic character of science and technology and the continually changing paradigms on those have affected the ecological dimensions of the architecture. It has been studied these changing paradigms and effects on architecture. The introduction is about the relationship between nature and architecture, and the ecological background of this relationship. In this chapter it has been discussed the potential paradigms which could affect the situation of ecological architecture by considering the dualist relationship between human and nature. The second part is about dualistic human and nature, science and technology relationships. It is aimed to evaluate the paradigm differences with a dialectic point of view which may affect the approach towards architecture and understand the effects of these differences regarding form-nature relationship in architecture. The human and nature relationship has been discussed in the perspective of east and west dialectics. The eastern and western philosophies have been compared in order to understand the different point of views to the nature. It has been aimed by making these comparisons to analyse the shifting paradigms in architecture from a philosophical perspective. It is also discussed the nature and science relationship. The changing paradigms in science have been studied in order to understand the shifting effects of scientific developments on architectural form. It has been seen that the deductive and inductive point of views and the dialectic relationship between these determine the effects of science and nature in architecture. The difference between the 20th century perception of universe which is called cartesian mechanic and perception of quantum universe which is in developing progress today in 21th century exposes the shifting paradigm of the relationship between science and nature. As it is known that the developing science has close relationship with technology. At the final part of this chapter the technologic improvement and the concept of singularity have been studied. As a result it has been discussed that the shifting tendency of all the dualistic relationships between those paradigms and its possible affect on architecture. Third part is about the paradigm changes appearings in ecology and ecological architecture. The transform of ecology and ecological concepts from 20th century are debated concerning the second part. Pinpointed principles like technology, economy and holism are explained as common issues aimed at ecology and ecological architecture s evolutional process. The evolutional process of ecology and ecologic architecture and their results have been studied in this chapter. The evolutional changing characters of ecology and ecological architecture have been compared with the results of shifting paradigms which have been discussed at the previous chapter. It has been seen that the changing tendency are the same both ecology and ecological architecture. It may be said that the relationship between these ecological concepts and the changing scientific paradigms are consistent. The eco-technologic and holistic characters of ecology and ecologic architecture have been asserted as proofs in this chapter. Fourth part is about the relationship between form and nature in architectural design. In this part architectural forming methods are examined and these methods relatonships with nature have been studied. Five forming method have been determined, these are canonic, pragmatic, iconic, analogic and memetic. The ecological potentials of these methods have been discussed. Also, three architectural approaches are studied: organic architecture which is discovered to have close relations with nature after 20th century, biomimesis and morphogenesis/morpho-ecology. These approaches are argued regarding size of architectural form and nature relation. In this chapter the role of nature on architectural forming has been studied. Some perspectives in architectural design for form finding by using nature and their importance has been discussed. These perspectives has been classified as methods for form finding and examined in order to determine the ecological characters of these methods. This examination has been made by selecting some architectural approaches to exemplify the perspectives. Organic architecture is the first approach that represents the 20th century point of view in architectural design to examine the relationship between nature and form. In this approach it has been examined the part-whole relationship in nature and its’ effects in architecture. It has been semtinized the role of nature at the forming process. It has been apperad that the relationship of organic architecture with nature is not based on imitation it is about the manifestation of undividable unity concept of nature in architecture. Another approach which is called biomimesis has been studied to understand the nature-form relations in developing technology. It has been examined the methods of biomimesis in architecture. It may be found imitation of nature in this approach. According to Benyus nature is categorized in three perspectives which are nature as mentor, nature as model and nature as measure. Biomimesis has been considered in these perspectives by analysing the relationship of it with nature. Some examples have been given in order to understand the character of the approach with nature. Morphogenesis and morpho-ecology design approaches have been determined for examining the nature-form relations in contemporary architecture. The developing science and technology and their effects on architecture have been studied to associate the changing science and changing ecologic architectural approaches. These concepts are based on high technology by imitating nature systems. Digital technology and its’ abilites on simulation help to create new forms in architecture. Morphogenesis is an approach that utilise the digital technology to imitate the system of nature. This approach use the three concept that belongs to nature, they are called ‘’form finding’’, ‘’emergence’’ and ‘’self-organization’’. All of these concepts belong to natural systems could imitate in architecture according to morphogenesis. It has been indicated that the natural processes such as homestasis and photosynthesis are the keys to design by nature. Morpho-ecology is another approach that use the ecological characters of the natural processes like morphogenesis. In this approach it has been examined the synthetic life and its effects on forming. The spatial outputs of these aproaches have also been discussed in this chapter. In conclusion part, form in architectural design and nature relationship is examined in the context of nature s relationships between human, science and technology. Deductions are made about the reflection in ecology and ecological architecture of paradigm changes in dual relationships effects on architecture. These deductions are exemplified with organic architecture, biomimesis, morphogenesis and morpho ecology design approaches. The changing paradigms’ effects on architecture and their relationships with nature and consequenses to the form have been discussed in this last chapter. The difference has been pointed out by comparing the 20th century and 21th century identities in science, technology and ecological architecture. To sum up, in the context of these changing paradigms there is an argument about the differentiation of architectural form and nature relationship making a transition from 20th century architecture to 21st century.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2012
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2012
Anahtar kelimeler
organik mimarlık, biyomimesis, morfogenesis, morfo-ekoloji, organic architecture, biomimesis, morphogenesis, morpho-ecology
Alıntı