Kamu yatırımlarında proje yönetimi

Gencer, Hüseyin
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Kamu yatırımlarında proje yönetiminin amacı; yatırımların verilen sürede, en ekonomik maliyetle ve istenilen kalitede gerçekleştirilmesidir. Kamu Yatırımlarında Proje Yönetimi; İhale Öncesi Proje Yönetimi, İhale Aşaması Proje Yönetimi, İhale Sonrası Proje Yönetimi ve Yatırımların İzlenmesi olmak üzere dört evrede incelenmiştir. İhale Öncesi Proje Yönetimi; yatırımın planlanmasından ihale sözleşme dosyasının hazırlanmasına dek geçen evredir. İhale Aşaması Proje Yönetimi; yatırımın ihale ilanından ihale edilmesine dek geçen evredir. İhale Sonrası Proje Yönetimi; yer tesliminden yatırımın tamamlanmasına dek geçen evredir. Tüm evrelerde güncel bilgiler verilmiştir. Ayrıca kamu inşaat sözleşmelerinde uyuşmazlık nedenleri ve yargı kararlarından bazı örnekler verilmiştir. Bayındırlık ve İskan Bakanlığı Yapı İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü merkez birimleri ile Bayındırlık ve İskan Müdürlüklerindeki proje yönetimi incelenmiş ve İş Akış Diyagramları çizilmiştir.
During the process of realization of the public investments - from planning upto the commercialization - project duration, economic cost and the required quality can only be achieved through successful project management methodologies. Main objective of project management in public investments is to complete the project within a prespecified time frame, at the acceptable economic cost and with the required quality specs. Project management in public investments can be studied in four phases; Pre-bid, bid, post-bid and the inspection of the investment. Project management during the pre-bid phase include all the processes from the planning stage of the investment to the preparation of the bid file. Corresponding Directorate of Public Works and Settlement requests the legal documents from the related public bodies after issuing the public project investments on the Offical Newspaper. The plan with elevations of the land is set up and the soil test for the land is completed. If the design which will be implemented is a special design, then the space list and the need program are required from the investor body. Layout plan and the preliminary design are completed. If the design which will be implemented is a standard design, the layout plan is prepared directly. The layout plan and the preliminary design are approved by the investor body in accordance with appropriateness, by land register department in accordance with the offical title register, and by the related municipality in accordance with the development plan. According to the approved layout plan and preliminary design, the first estimate of the investment is prepared. The estimation is forwarded to the General Directorate of Construction Affairs to get the approved bidding order. In accordance with the bidding order, the bid file of the project investment is put in order. Project management before bidding is of great importance. The process between the planning stage of public investments and the completion of the project is usually quite long and significant amount of deviations at implementation costs can be experienced. This situation can be attributed to the improper implementation of project management methodologies during the implementation process extending from planning the public investments to the bidding stage. Potential to contract the public projects via use of the preliminary design prohibits objective estimation. Whereas realization of the investments without delay and cost overruns is only possible by proper estimates. Missing legal documents of the land where the investment will be implemented should be carefully acquired, and viii no obstacles should be present to get the required construction permit of the work place. The soil tests should be made carefully to prevent cost overruns during the foundation phase. All the above listed issues, if not planned and forecasted carefully, may lead to delays, suspension and even in some cases to the killing of the investment. Project management during the bid involves all the activities between the bidding declaration of the project and the bid openning date. Certifying documents should be approved by the local governor's office. Estimated amount, project id, the date and reference number of official order for bidding, project name, bidding type, method of declaration, appropriation for the years, price differences if any, and the degree and the amount of bid bonds are shown in the approved bidding documents. The following documents should be in the bidding file: 1 - Bidding specifications 2 - Draft contract 3 - Special administirative specifications 4 - Unit price schedules 5 - General technical specification of Public Works 6 - General specifications of Public Works 7 - Engineering and Architectural specifications 8 - Drawings 9 - Tables of the initial estimate summary In order to contract a public investment project, the project should be declared/advertised in the local media. The biddings are done based on the the contents of the State Bidding Law number 2886. Available methods of bidding are as follows; 1 - Closed bid 2 - Closed bid among certain bidders 3 - Open bid 4 - Negotiative bid 5 - Competitive bid Which of the above methods will be applied is decided by the authorities who have the power to give instruction for bid based on the nature and content of the project. Eligible applicants will be required to furnish the prequalification certificate in order to qualify for consideration for the award of the contract. The following are the necessary documents for getting the prequalification certificate. 1 - Petition 2 - Constractor License 3 - Certificate of Chamber of Commerce and/or Chamber of Industrial 4 - A clearance certificate in reference to law number 2886 5 - A clearance certificate proving no debt for personal income tax or corporate tax, from tax office. ix 6 - Declaration of financial standing. 7 - Available equipment to be dedicated to the project. 8 - Contract for technical personal. 9 - Present contracts undertaken 10 - Duration of the establihment's activity 11 - List of construction projects completed during last 15 years. 12 - List of projects to be considered for evaluation 1 3 - A statement about job situation Prequalification Commission evaluates the bidders with respect to certain criteria such as; schedule under/overruns of prior projects, experience in similar projects, competency of the technical personnel, and the equipment capacity by looking over the bidders documents. Each firm is given a grade out of 100 based on the above listed criteria. A list of qualified applicants for bidding is submitted to the head of Bidding Commission by the head of Prequalification Commission. The Bidding Commission selects the lowest bidder among the valid bids. The decision of the Bidding Commission will be permanent upon approval by the local governor" office. A contract is signed between the contractor and the local authority. Project management after bidding is a period between the date of submittal of work place and the date of completion of the project. In order to start the work, submittal of work place to the undertaker is required. After submittal of the work place the project starts by getting construction permit. The Undertaker prepares the project schedule to be approved by the officials, and submits the list of technical staff. The inspection of the investment is followed by the Control Organization which is the Directorate of Public Works and Settlement. The duty of the Control Organization is to enforce the implementation of the works in accordance with the contract and its addendum, specifications, rules of science and art; to check and verify if minimum quality requirements are met; and to motivate and enforce the timely completion of the job. Apart from supervisory functions, the control organization has administrative and legal tasks to be performed between the period of the date of submittal of work place and the date of temporary acceptance of work. One of these tasks is the transfer of progress payments. The progress payments procedure is carried out by the control organization. The basis for progress payments is a determination, in the field, of the actual quantities of work that have been accomplished and delivered, and consumed materials as of the date the payment request is submitted. The amount of the payment is calculated by using the estimate summary addendum to the contract, or via schedules of unit prices, or approved new prices calculated after contract. After extracting of reduction and retainage according to the contract, payment is made in the context on the payment rules described in the contract. The contractor is expected to submit a request for payment for all the work performed during the preceding month. In addition to the unit prices in the contract; according to the official decree for price difference, the difference in price for every item is paid. The price difference is the difference between the unit price in the implementation year and unit price in the contract year. The reduction is also calculated for the price difference. If there is a difference in the current value of the materials which are used - either by calculating the unit prices in the implementation year or by calculating the unit prices in contract year without adding the overhead and profits - price difference in materials is also paid for the materials actually used in the work and for supporting materials. The new unit prices are established for the productions that are not shown in the contract and required by the administration or production necessary for the design. Another task is the extention of project schedule. According to the contract, extention of time is given under the following circumstances. A) The circumstances caused by administiration 1. Delay in the submittal of the work place 2. Delay in the submittal of the design during the stated time in the contract 3. Inability to pay the partial payments in 60 days commencing the approved date due to lack of allowance 4. Increase of legal estimate budget B) Exceptional adverse climatic conditions or other special circumstances of any kind whatsoever which may occur delay or regression in the work because of damage C) Circumstances because of social reasons 1. General legal strike 2. When contagious diseases occur 3. Decleration of partial or general mobilization Contractor has to apply to the administration within ten days following the occurrence of the above circumstances that may require an extention. When the work is completed, the contractor applies to the administration for provisional acceptance. The completed works are pre- inspected by the control organization. At the end of the pre-inspection, if the work is completed in accordance with the contract and its addendum, and rf it is understood that there is no obstacle for the process of acceptance a provisional acceptance committee is established. A provisional acceptance is signed by the committee if the completed work is fair enough to the committee when inspected with the contractor. The provisional acceptance will be valid upon approval by the officials. The final payment of the project is calculated by both bodies, the contractor and the control organization. Following the approval of the final payment, in accordance with the approved final acceptance, a report of final payment should be prepared by the control organization within 30 days. xi The contractor's relation is discharged by paying the bid bonds back upon the submission of a written document proving that the contractor is free from Workmen's Compensation Insurance and no debt is outstanding to the Bureau of Taxation. The public investments are implemented based on the statuary law by the official bodies. The ultimate goal of the control organization is to sustain early completion of the project with the required quality in the most economical way. The progression of the projects with proper and economic schedule depends upon the realization of the program goals and the inspection of implementation continuously. Various reports are prepared by the control organization to inform the high level administrative people and the supporting foundations for post-project evaluations in detail and every level. There have also been some problems in implementing the public investments due to legal procedures so far. The unit prices are established by using the current values at the beginning of the year. These unit prices lose their value at the beginning of the construction session which is the beginning of April in most places throughout the country. The price difference is not given for every material components causing delays for the completion and non-quality outcomes. To overcome the issue, the work can be valued at the market prices. The goal should be to select the contractor who can finish the project with the current market price. To undertake a project with the prices below the current market value directly effects the quality of work. However effective quality control can only be established by direct participation of all interested parties. In the public works contracts, time extensions are given to the contractor if non-payment situation occurs after the preparation date of partial payment. In our country where annual inflation rates of 1 00% are realities of life, not being able to get the payment in accordance with the contract items for the contractor is not a fair game. The legal procedures in our country has been perceived to be the main sources of insufficiency in effective project implementation uptill today. Although revisions are performed for the legal procedures, the problems have not been solved fully. Human aspect is an important ingredient in planning. Without recognizing the human and its cultural aspect in planning, it is almost impossible to make successful planning. The direct relation between the culture, planning and the quality can not be denied. Planning, dedication to quality and culture must be the way of life for every community. Overcoming the problems in the developing country of us is only possible by improving the structure of the construction sector by qualified people which has always been identified as the locomotive of the economy. In this study, the project management in the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Directorate of Construction Affairs is examined. While examining the project management in public investments, the computer is used widely as a supporting tool. The ABC Flow Chart is used in the drawing of the flow charts related to the study, and the PASCAL programming language is used for the programming related to the preparation of the application for bidding.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Kamu yatırımları, Proje yönetimi, Public investments, Project management