Giriş mekanlarının değerlendirilmesi

Erkök, Fatma
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada, giriş mekam tanımlanarak, oluşumunda etkili olan çeşitli faktörler incelenmiş, bu etkiler altında girişin mekan organizasyonundaki yeri ve önemi ele alınmıştır. 1. Bölümde, tez konusunun önemliliği vurgulanarak, araştırmanın çerçevesi ve izlenecek yol ortaya konmuştur. Bu doğrultuda, tez de yeralacak bölümler hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. 2. Bölümde, kavramsal olarak giriş mekanı tanımlanmıştır. Çeşitli mekan türleri ve tanımları, giriş eylemi, girişin ölçeği ve önemlilik derecesi, konuya giriş olarak açıklanmıştır. 3. Bölümde, giriş mekanının oluşturulmasında etkili olan faktörler incelenmiştir. Bu faktörler, kültürel, sosyal, psikolojik ve fiziksel çevresel faktörler olmak üzere dört ana başlık altında toplanmıştır. 4. Bölümde, giriş mekanının konumu, yapının iç ve dış mekanlarıyla ilişkisi seçilen çeşitli örneklerle incelenmiştir. Ayrıca, girişi oluşturmaya yardımcı olan mimari elemanlar, girişin ölçeği ve biçimsel özellikleri ele alınmıştır. Sonuç olarak, giriş mekanları birçok bileşenin etkisi altında ve yapının diğer mekanlarıyla ilişkili olarak ele alındığında varı lan nokta, bu önemli tasarım öğesine, gereken ilgi ve duyarlılığın gösterilmesi gerektiğidir.
The purpose of this work is to define the entrance, "as deter mining the beginning of any route in a building, to display the fac tors that affect the formation of entrance areas, and to analyze them as transitional elements between outside and inside, by searching out their relationships between these two realms, as well as their own characteristics such as scale, form and spatial character. In chapter I, the significance and variation of the research area, from a simple hole in the wall to an elaborate, articulated gateway is emphasized. The entrance usually acts as a separator device between dif ferent kinds of spaces. It gives clues about the space being entered. In this chapter, the outline of the research and the method to be used is explained. In chapter II, a conceptual definition of the entrance is put forward. Definitions of space according to Kuban, Schulz and Joedicke are explained. Kuban, defines architecture as a special building action. This action is the source of architecture. This special emptiness which is called "space", separates architecture from other building actions. Space is defined according to the possibilities of movement inside and exists with light. Schulz defines the space, as a product of an interaction be tween the organism and the environment in which it is impossible to dissociate the organization of the universe perceived from that of the activity itself. According to Joedicke, space is the sum of consecutively expe rienced relationships between points. Architectural theorists dealing with space usually developed various space concepts. Schulz, distinguishes between five space concepts; the prag matic space of physical action, the perceptual space of immediate orientation, the existential space which forms man's stable image of his environment, the cognitive space of the physical world and the abstract space of pure logical relations. Joedicke, distinguishes between architectonic, urban and nat ural space. There is not merely a single space, but many different kinds of spaces that are linked to and interpenetrate with each other. Prak defines, basically three kinds of space such as; physical, conceptual, behavioral space and also perceptual space as a subcate gory of conceptual space. All spaces, interior and exterior are linked together. Se quence is continuity in the perception and understanding of spaces. Continuity depends on the quality of the transitions between spaces (e.g. betv/een an interior and exterior space such as an en trance or between two exterior spaces such as archways, gateways in a street). Entering a building, a room within a building or a defined field of exterior space, involves the act of penetrating a vertical plane that distinguishes one space from another, and separates "here" from "there". The action of entering can be accepted as the first action which will take place in the building. A wall defining the edges of a space or a group of spaces also separates the inside of a space or a house from the outside. The wall divides the exterior from the interior and the entrance repre sents a link between the two realms. The entrance marks the transition from the public exterior to the private interior. It unites as well as it separates. Other definitions of the entrance can be made according to, the elements of existential space concepts of Schulz and, the image elements of the city concepts of Lynch. Entrances can be researched in four different scales:. Single building scale,. Building complex scale,. Urban scale,. Country scale. Entrances play an important role in the identification and orientation feelings of man. The significance rate and consideration of the entrance design of a building, gives information about the design thoughts of the spaces. In chapter 3, the factors which affect the formation of en trance areas are displayed. These factors can be grouped in four ba sic topics such as:. cultural factors,. social factors,. psychological factors,. physical environmental factors. The building occurs as a result of a group of factors. These factors, are the data put forward by the relationships of man to his environment. These factors are classified in different ways according to various viewpoints. In this work, factors which appear to affect the formation of the entrance spaces are considered. Among these factors, physical environmental factors can be regarded as factors independent from human being and cultural, social and psychological factors can be regarded as factors occurred as the result of human and human groups' actions. Schulz claims that cultural integration depends on the ex istence of common symbol -systems. A common order is called culture. As the main function of culture is to produce patterns, the formal characteristics of the environment constitutes the essence of the relationships of culture with the environment. In the formation of entrance areas; images, values and symbols imposed by the culture, the aesthetic understanding occurred by the influence of culture and the technological level developed by the culture are effective as cultural factors. From this point of view, cultural factors are considered in two topics; the general structure of culture and the shaping role of culture. Different styles, architectural manners have an influence by the whole of the structure of a culture. Every culture has a specific world view. It represents the expectations from life and the way of seeing it. Mediterranean countries have a life style which involves living more close to each other, but there is also a privacy concept. These views affect the location and formation of the entrance area. Northern countries on the other side, have another life style. This involves a more limited neighborly living and settlement. Religion is an important factor for especially primitive and preindustrial societies. The concepts of sacred and profane deter mine a separation between realms. The threshold has an important function in this sense. Traditions which are carried through centuries by the culture, have obligatory influences on architecture. For example in older farmhouses in Norway and Sweden one often finds a particular beam in the ceiling that marks the point at which visitors must stop and be admitted. This beam may be called as a visual, conceptual gate. Symbols imply something more than the plain meaning. The sym bols of architecture are formed by religion and traditions and archi tecture uses forms and materials as symbols. Symbolism is an effective way of explaining things and is used in entrances very often. The technological level of the society makes things possible and others impossible. The aesthetic values also play a determining role. Also an analysis of the entrance areas of 14 houses in Fener is presented as a sample pattern formed by a culture in this chapter. Social factors, concerned with the entrances are taken as:. function,. economy,. legal standards. Every building has a particular function. For different actions, different places are produced. As a result function means, the re quests determined by the necessities and their organization. Necessi ties are related to the social system. The function of the building plays an important role in the en trance areas. A hospital's entrance can not be the same with a church's entrance or a house's entrance. There are some defined necessities about entrances changing ac cording to different building types. Economic factors affect the designer positively or negatively in various parts of the design. Related to the building cost, the alternative use of site re sources marketing factors, alternative building systems, construction methods and energy conservation are affective. For entrance areas another important subject is the building plan. As well as the length of the building location and stair design, number of entries is also a factor affecting marketing decisions re lated to building design. Especially in public buildings, the number of entries is im portant because, these points become control points and functions like security, information will be necessary. The purpose of usage brings some particular qualities and stan dards. Most legal standards are technical standards and they are re lated to security and health protection. For example in a cinema en trance, a big number of entry and exit comes about. The laws about entrance areas have differences in every country. In Turkey, the laws bring items in judgements about levels, numbers, widths and heights about doors, but it is interesting that there is not any item about the opening direction of doors which is an important factor in buildings such as schools, theaters, cinemas. Psychological necessities are the perception of the environ ment by the individual; behaviours, behaviour models, motivations and instincts towards the environment. In some entrance designs, perceptual arrangements are effec tive. Perception is not only visual, senses such as hearing, smelling and touching are also important. The situation of the entrance has a major influence on the spa tial experience. A rectangular room can have two completely different characters, depending on whether one enters it from the end or from the side. In one case it is perceived as a longitudinal space, in the other as a transverse space. In architecture figures can be simple recognizable things such as doors or abstract compositions of window groupings on the elevation of a building. For example, if an entry needs visual expression, it can be formed as a figure against the background of a building. In contrast, there are numerous examples in architecture where there is no differentiation between the entry and the rest of the building. This can be extremely confusing and aggravating. Curiosity, tension, even anxiety or delight at arrival, sorrow at departure are direct impacts of entrance areas and they are not only symbolic. This chain of feelings, can extend as steps from in viting, even attractiveness to anonymous, even propulsiveness. In the Morris gift shop, Frank Lloyd Wright, made good use of the sense of curiosity of man and created an attractive place. A clear visual orientation towards the entrance, is one of the factors constituting the atmosphere of the entrance. Physical environmental factors which affect entrance areas can be suggested as:. Location and environment,. climate,. geographical situation,. resources. A special environmental character such as a historical or a special natural environment will be affective in the formation. As climatic conditions become more severe, forms will be more constant and limited and less alternatives which can be called as "pure climatical functional ism" will be possible. In a igloo solution which is an extreme climatic condition, the entrance tunnel is arranged totally in relation to climate wind and cold weather. Different climates had various impacts on different civiliza tions throughout architectural history, but still the culture to be found in, has decided among the alternatives. Geographical situation and resources are also natural data that have important role in the formation of the artificial environment. In chapter 4, the location of the entrance, its relationships with the interior and exterior spaces of the building are analyzed by various chosen examples. Also, architectural elements supporting the formation of entrances, the scale and formal qualities of entrance areas are researched. The relationship of the entrance area with the exterior in some examples, can be seen as an extension of the urban space, such as the Italian squares and entrances of buildings facing the square. A propyl aeum which means, an important entrance ga-teway or vestibule, in front of a sacred enclosure as at Athens, Priene, Sunium and Eleusis, forms a transitional element between outside and inside. It links the exterior to the interior as a semi-closed space. The porticos in front of religious or public buildings act in the same way, as they create a space open on three sides. An entrance, as a hole in the wall plane, creates a more defi nite separation between the two realms, thus the entrance can not be considered as an extension of the urban space. The location of the entrance, related to the whole of the building; placed symmetrically, asymmetrically, etc. have important perceptual impacts. Some design principles are based on the building itself having a symmetrical layout, but the entrance not being on the symmetry axis and some others are based on a building having an asymmetrical layout and the entrance, with the facade, being symmetrical. The relationship of the entrance area with the interior space, depending on the path taking place inside, can also change according to the functional type of the building. In order to strengthen the visual effect of the entrance area, other architectural elements such as; columns, arcades, facade ele ments, ornaments, eaves, pillars are frequently used. Scale, which refers to how we perceive the size of a building element or space relative to other forms is also important. In vis ually measuring the size of an element, we tend to use other elements of known-size in their context as measuring devices, these are known as scale-giving elements. Elements as residential window units and doorways can give us an idea of how large a building is and how many stories it has. But in some cases, it can be seen that, doorways act in a misleading way. As a result, with the nearly unlimited design possibilities of today, unconscious designs, only based on individual tastes and not on regional, topographical data, should be replaced with more sensi tive, conscious and responsible ones.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1992
Anahtar kelimeler
Giriş mekanları, Tasarım, Entrance spaces, Design