Tekerlekli Sandalye Kullanıcıları İçin Uygun Eviye Yüksekliğinin Araştırılması

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Tarih
1998
Yazarlar
Özer, Öniz
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Bu çalışma, tekerlekli sandalye kullanıcısı bireylerin konut içinde en çok zaman geçirdikleri mekan olan mutfak ve mutfak içinde en çok kullanılan çalışma elemanı olan eviye için uygun yükseklik konum ve kullanım şeklinin saptanması konusunda standardizasyona yönelik bir araştırmadır. Çalışmanın 1. bölümünde özürlü bireylere ait ülkemizden ve dünyadan bazı istatistiki bilgiler verilmekte ve konunun güncel önemi vurgulanmaktadır. 2. bölümde konunun tanıtılmasına yönelik olarak, "bedensel özürlü birey", "tekerlekli sandalye ve kullanıcısı" tanımları; tekerlekli sandalye kullanıcısının hareket özellikleri de antropometrik boyutları ile bu boyutların belirlenme şekilleri irdelenmektedir. Tez çalışmasının 3. Bölümünde problemin belirlenmesi kapsamında tekerlekli sandalye kullanıcılarının mutfak ekipmanı ve kullanımında karşılaştıkları sorunlar ve mutfak ekipmanı standartları ile uygun eviye yüksekliğinin saptanması konusunda yapılan çalışmalar ve içerdiği sorunlar ele alınmaktadır. Bu sorunlar; eylemler ve ekipmanlar açısından ortaya çıkan problemler ile farklı kullanıcıların işlevsel açıdan karşılaştıkları sorunlar olarak irdelenmektedir. Bu etkenlerin incelenmesi sonucunda ortaya çıkan "eviye yüksekliğinin ayarlanabilir olması" sonucu üzerinde inceleme ve çözümlemeler yoğunlaştırılmaktadır. Bu sonucu, yeni esneklik sorununu oluşturan etkenler, çalışma düzlemlerinde yapılan eylemler, çalışma düzlemi ve eviye yüksekliklerinin ayarlanabilmesi sorunları, yükseklik ayarlama prensipleri ve yöntemleri ile tesisat sorunları anlatılmaktadır. Tezin sonuçlar bölümünde de tekerlekli sandalye kullanıcılarının eviye odaklı çalışma düzlemlerinin farklı eylem yapıları için dört farklı yükseklik olarak belirlenen aralıklarda ayarlanabilir olarak tasarlanmasının gereği vurgulanmaktadır. Ayrıca böyle bir düzenlemenin getireceği teknik alt yapı sorunlarının da bütünleşik bir bakış açısı ile çözümlenebileceği hususu örneklerle sergilenmektedir.
This study is a research on the standardisation regarding the determination of the suitable height, position and way of making use of the sink which is the most used element in the kitchen where wheel-chair users spend the most of their times. In the first section some statistical information from our country and around the World regarding disabled have been be provided and the actual importance of this issue be emphasised. According to these statistical information, it has been determined that 1.4% of our population in 1985 were physically disabled. However, in accordance with the estimated figure obtained by the Disabled Organisation in 1994 12% of the population consisted of disabled individuals. Data provided by the United Nations show that 15% of the World's population consist of individuals which are in any way physically insufficient. At the end of the first section, the necessity for providing suitable equipment to disabled individuals which take an important place within our country's and the World's population has been mentioned. By approaching this issue from this point of view the height of the sink which appears as the most intensive action field in kitchens, and working arrangements directly connected therewith are considered as one of the major problems in this context. Beside the changes of critical heights for different actions and sub- actions, the height of sink and drainage boards should have to be different for different disability situations. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to "Research The Suitable Sink Height For Wheel-Chair Users" and to make necessary determinations regarding equipment in order to solve this problem. In the second section, the terms "physically disabled individual", "wheel-chair user" and "wheel-chair" have been defined and the anthropometrical sizes and movement features of wheel-chair users have been explained. Within this frame, the classification of physically disabled individuals, reasons for the use of wheel-chairs, variety and sizes of wheel chairs, turning fields, movement fields of wheel-chair users and accessibility distances are defined. Under this section the anthropometrical sizes of wheel-chair users and methods for the determination of such data as well as the determination of the stretching distances from the wheel-chairs towards different directions which have been collected under a research named "A Study Regarding The Necessary Field For Wheel-Chair Users" have been brought up. At the end of the second section, the necessity of combining designs made for wheel-chair users with those made for non-disabled users in order to both increasing the independence of wheel-chair user and facilitating their integration into the public has been emphasised. In the third section of the thesis, researches are made regarding the problems of planning kitchen equipment for wheel-chair users, required sink heights and the relations of actions to be made at the sink (like preparing for cooking, washing dishes, etc.). In this context, the problems wheel-chair users are facing regarding kitchen equipment and use thereof are mentioned. As the problems arising from the fact that kitchen fields are insufficient, also the realising of kitchen equipment designs subject to the needs of the user creates problems. As a result of the width of drainage boards being arranged in accordance with the sizes of places available in the kitchens and other reasons, different sizes of sinks are being used. Most of these are at an insufficient size for the actions to be made at the sinks. Furthermore, the fact that wheel-chair users may not approach these sinks.XI and as the height of such sinks defined by the stable height of the drainage board does not permit a comfortable use thereof it also creates a great problem. That no works regarding the standards of the Turkish nation have been made, cause to be an important problem in design studies. One of the major factors causing a standardisation problem is that due to different type of users different needs for places occur. Faulty and incomplete designs made as a result thereof, extend the working times of wheel-chair users and cause energy losses and psychological problems. Another issue defined under this section are the standards of kitchen equipment for wheel-chair users. Within this frame the principles for suitable kitchen arrangements have been defined and the plans and perspectives of certain kitchen examples have been provided. Furthermore, the relation between the cooler, sink, oven and drainage board in the kitchen as well as the suitable arrangement of the working units have been explored. Also, optimum heights for oven, sink, storage fields and drainage board have been provided. The planning principles for storage fields and the principles for facilitating the actions in order to provide that wheel-chair users may become more productive by limited energy have been shown. Also, the necessity of determining the length, width and depth of the sink in order to determine the suitable height of sinks for wheel-chair users and the necessity for this finding to be taken into consideration for the action flow between the position of the sink within the kitchen and sink, drainage board and cooler have been brought up. As matters like actions made by the user in the kitchen, the frequency of this actions, the share of use of the user within this action chain and the kind of actions made by the user at the sink are explored because they are issues which have to be handled under the research. As the determination of the suitable sink height is handled in view of equipment sizes, the importance which have also to be given to the length and depth of a sink may be clearly seen. Furthermore, the sizes of kitchen tools (like plates, dishes, etc.) form a factor influencing the height of a sink. xii If the problem is approached from different point of views of different users, it may be seen that the height of the knees and elbows which form one of the major anthropometrical size, are present in different measures. The different results obtained from the height of knees and elbows should not only be considered by wheel-chair user with different wheel heights but also by non-disabled users. In this section the knee and elbow heights as well as the arm length measures of non-disabled and wheel-chair users are provided. After all factors influencing the sizes of kitchen equipment have been brought together, it may be seen that the problem different users and especially wheel-chair users and those people who have to perform the works to be made at the sink by standing, face with the height of the sinks may not be solved. Thus, the request for making it necessary to cause the height of the sink to be adjusted is brought up. If this flexibility problem is dealed with in accordance with different factors, at first the actions made at this working arrangements should be handled, because the suitable sink - working arrangement height differs subject to the kind of action. Furthermore, the problems which have to be faced in connection with adjustment of the suitable height of working arrangements and sinks are mentioned. As it has been emphasised as a result of the researches made in order to adjust the suitable height of sinks, it may be seen that the flexibility factor is a basic need which has to be met. In the third section, height adjustment methods are brought up as a result of the need to adjust the height (flexibility problem). Basic principles for the adjustment of the height of sinks and drainage boards are mentioned and examples from different countries are presented. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of the height adjustment systems regarding walls, furnishing and storage fields are brought up. In this section the details for the height adjustment of sinks and drainage boards are given. These methods like heightening by lifting-jacks, movable feet or adjustable bases, vertical and horizontal movable base Xlll elements, wall mounting (vertically and horizontally adjusting system), reels, screws without end have been brought together under the heading "Heightening". Furthermore, the cost problems that occur from such height adjustment methods for the design of sinks have been explored and examples for the solutions improved in this context are given. These examples include the mounting of a tap on the wall, on the sink, a stable drainage hole, a flexible tap-pipe and an exit hole. At the end of the third section, it is mentioned that due to many different factors, a stable sink height is not suitable to wheel-chair users and the best solution will be a sink with an adjustable height. In order to provide that wheel-chair user may reduce the problems they have to face in accordance with the use of the other working arrangements the adjustment also of the height of the drainage board should be made. It is further emphasised that, production companies should be conscious of their responsibilities against users' group. The fourth section is the last section of this thesis. In this section it is emphasised that in order to gain a place in the market for the products the problem is not only a problem of wheel-chair users, but should also be emphasised as a general production factor for kitchen. Another fact arising from this research was the lack of a study made upon Turkish resources, namely indirectly on the Turkish users' standards. The purpose of this thesis which has been made in order to bring out the problems that may arise in the design and production of home equipment which meet the needs of wheel chair user, is to direct and assist works in the future which will be made on this field.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Eviye tasarımı, Tekerlekli sandalye, Sink design, Wheelchair
Alıntı