Bina ve şehir biçimlenmesinde felsefe ve kuram

Alkışer, Yasemin
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Süreli Yayın ISSN
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu tezde, bina ve şehrin biçimlenmesinde bugüne kadar oluşturulan kuram ve felsefelerle bunların sonucu ortaya çıkan uygulamaların etkisi incelenmiştir. Dün- ya'da bugüne dek şehircilik konusunda savunulan teoriler ve ütopyalar ele alınmış ve dünyadaki şehir gelişiminin hangi aşamalardan geçtiği ve bugün nereye ulaştığı belirtilmiştir. Dünyadaki şehir oluşumuna ilişkin kuramlar yüzyıllara göre incelenerek, son dönemde şehircilik üzerinde etkili olan ütopya ve felsefeler biraraya getirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Şehircilik gelişimi sürecinde sanatçılar, kuramcılar ve felsefe adamlarının hangi kuramlar ve amaçlar üzerinde durdukları, bu düşünceleriyle nereye varmak istedikleri ve şehir biçimlenmesine getirdikleri katkılar ve yeni boyutlar incelenmiştir. Bu incelemeler sonucunda, Türkiye'deki şehirsel biçimlenmenin bu kuram ve felse felerden hangisi ya da hangileri doğrultusunda geliştiği araştırılmıştır. Şehirsel biçimle ilgili teori ve ütopyaları uygulamaya geçirebilmek için geçmişten bugüne dek birtakım kanuni düzenlemeler gerekmiştir. İmar kanunu adı altın da toplanan bu düzenlemeler şehirsel uygulamada çok büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu bölümde imarla ilgili mevzuat üç grupta toplanarak incelenmiştir. Bunlar planlama, mali ve hukuki problemler ve imar tatbikatına ilişkin mevzuatlardır. Bu gruplama sonucunda herbir mevzuatın amaç ve kapsamı belirtilmiş, tarihi süreçte içerdikleri konular ve geçirdikleri aşamalar incelenmiştir. Daha sonra imar kanunlarının şehir biçimlenmesine ilişkin getirdiği düzenlemelerin olumlu ya da olumsuz eleştirisi yapılarak, bu kanunların etkilediği planlama ve uygulamaların şehir biçimlenmesi üzerin deki önemi vurgulanmış, plansız gelişmenin yol açacağı sakıncalar belirtilmiştir. Şehir gelişimi ve değişimini etkileyen şehir planlarının ve imar kanunların hangi kriterler çerçevesinde oluşturulması ve kanunların hazırlanmasında hangi aşamalardan geçilmesi gerektiği saptanmış ve bir imar kanununun kapsamı içerisin de olması gerekenlerden bahsedilmiştir. Son olarak, bu tez kapsamında yapılan çalışma doğrultusunda İskilip kasa basındaki imar planı uygulamaları incelenerek değerlendirmesi yapılmıştır.
The aim of this study is to analyze the theories of town planning in the world in past and present and the reconstruction-laws in Türkiye which affect the formation of a city, to search which theories or Utopias are influential on the development of town planning in Türkiye and to carry out a case study for "İskilip" which is related with the subject of this thesis. In Chapter I, there is an introduction about the theory and Utopias in the world and the importance of the reconstruction laws which shape the cities. There are 3 systems directly related with the formation of the cities. These systems are: 1- The cultural system 2- The social system 3- The political system The culture pattern, is a consistent organization of cultural features. Although the precise meaning of the term varies with different authors, the emphasis is usually on the structure or form, as distinguished from the content, of cultural elements. The cultural pattern is a structure accepted by members of the culture and one that persists in time. Ruth Benedict, in Patterns of Culture (1934), described culture in terms of their general emotional approach to the world. She viewed culture as a more or less consistent pattern of thought and action, with a characteristic purpose that pervades the forms of behaviour and institutions of a society. Other configurationists have suggested that, cultures are characterized by several interacting themes or cultural ideals rather than a single integrative principle. The primary function of the cultural system is to construct a pattern. The importance essence of the relationship between the Cultural system and the cultural environment is related with the formal properties of the environment. When time is dynamic, it can be seen that cultural values have an important constructive role. In this study, the historical process' of the formation of cities which are formed by certain theories and philosophies are studied, effects of cultural life in the city structure is analyzed. Social system is constituted of the relationships of persons with each other and can be defined as the process' of social relations. The social system which can be defined as an independent system and which is one of the subsystems of the action system organizes the community. In the formation of the city the social structure of the community is a very important factor. So in this study, the social system which affects the urban development in the world is analyzed by the help of the analysis of the urban development in the world. VII Politics is a component of planning and participation. Architecture is a part of the mechanism of politics, and a pretty ineffectual part of it. Similarly local action on problems on conservation are part of the arena of politics but a peripheral (not unimportant) part. Both these components of the political scene have been greased over the last few years, and they move reasonably easy in many countries. Aristo defines man as a political animal. Here, Aristo rather thought that what is essential for (civilized) man is that he is a creature of the polis. It is only within the polis that he can be fulfilled physically and spiritually, politically and aesthetically, socially and individuality. Politics is not an isolated sphere of human affairs, but a part of the total system within which a given society is governed. Politics does not determine social structures thought it may so appear. Rather, the social structures prevailing in a given society and characteristic for a given society generate appropriate political structures. Since politics in administration of government is very comprehensive and very special, politics is another subject of study. So while the philosophies and the theories affected on urban formation all around the world have been analyzed the politic systems of the periods haven't been considered. In Chapter 2, analyzing the stages of development of the philosophy of the city from the primitive age to now, certain Utopias about the formation of cities have been determined. Since earliest times, men and women described in Genesis have tried to adapt their surroundings to their needs, clearing forests, growing crops, making weapons and tools. Building a shelter against sun, wind or rain is one of the most fundamental of human needs, essential to his physical and social life. In primitive societies, with a system of shared labour, there may be few specialist building designers; often designer, builder and user are the same person. When a whole community is involved in putting up its own buildings, what is lost in sophistication may be amply gained in both personal and social satisfaction. Mankind has only been existing for 500.000 years in the world. In this process, ^the origins of the city are obscure, a large part of its past buried or affected beyond recovery, so that its further prospects are difficult to weigh. To lay a new foundation for urban life, the historic nature of the city, and differences between its original functions, those that have emerged from it and those that may still be called forth must be understood. Many cities, many existing educational institutions and political organizations have already made their commitment to Post-historic Man. In seeking the origins of the city, these stages have been seen: Before the city there was the hamlet and the shrine and the village; before the village; the camp, the cache, the cave, the cairn; and before all these there was a disposition to social life that man plainly shares with many other animal species. Between B.C. 3 Million and B.C. 100.000 nomadism, hunting have been seen. At 8000 B.C. mankind settled with the beginning of agricultural activities. After people invented within, the first real urban settlements were seen in B.C. 3000. Between B.C. 600 and B.C. 400 it can be accepted that the large urbanization process started. In Europe the Roman city lost its economic raison d'etre when the barbarians came in A.C. 500. The economy had become an agricultural one. - viii - A barbarian settlement had been built within the city walls, but the rest of the city had fallen in to ruins. Eventually it formed the basis of a medieval abbey or was seen with a church at its centre. Thus, it did not completely disintegrate, though it lost much population. The 9th century saw the establishment of burgs in strategic places, fortified strongholds of military rather than economic origin. As yet neither bishopric nor burg was a real city: Neither had an independent economic life and neither engaged in commerce or industry except to provide its immediate needs. Both were based on the feudal system and lived of the surrounding countryside. When cities reviewed in the 11th and 12th centuries, they expanded. Much of the land inside the old walls might be owned by the church, so a portus of commerce might grow up outside. A burg at the centre of a similar commercial growth might develop a business area or faubourg outside the fortified centre. At first, neither portus nor faubourg was fortified. As competition for wealth grow, fear of attack increased. It was also important to protect the "free" citizens inside the city from the feudal world outside. So where the citizens could afford it, massive outer lines of defence were built. Medieval towns were built for people on foot; their narrow streets and small-scale buildings making few concessions to wheeled traffic; individual houses with workshops and small courtyards were more important than any necessities of street layout. Medieval towns were not large by modern standards: as the 14th century typical big town. Towns depended on their livelihood on craft-work and small-scale industry and most houses were built for or by the craftsman themselves, with work-places on the ground floor and living-space and storage above. The growth of the towns was not the only phenomenon to reduce the power of the barons; a tendency towards strong central government was also hastening the end of feudalism. The development of architecture had reached the point at which great buildings needed a specialist designer. The building itself indicates a man of intellect and capability, and points to a growing phenomenon of the 12th century: The educated and cultured but secular mind playing an increasingly dominant part in intellectual life. Under the influence of Arab scholars and Greek and Latin classics which had been transfered from Arabic versions, reason become a major element in philosophy. Gothic buildings stand at a crucial transition-point in history, between the church-dominated early Middle Ages and the free, secular world of the Renaissance. During the reminder of the 12th century and for most of the 13th, Europe was an open society with few political barriers to travel and trade. The easy passage of master-masons from one place to another encouraged the spread of architectural ideas and expertise. During the 14th century the national monarchs of Europe, recognising the growing influence of the urban middle class, formed alliances with them and began to dominate Europe politically and economically, at the expense of the church and the aristocracy. At the same time with the growth of capitalism, the Middle Ages in Europe came to an end: The inherent tensions that accompaired the new system - between nation - states and between the classes within them - are features of the modern world. But Artists were setting medieval symbolism in favour of characterisation. And a comparable attitude developed in architectural design. - IX At the beginning of the 15th century, during the Renaissance, the rationalists philosophy and the secular idea overlooked on the life style of communities in this point of view the idea of classical Utopia about the city formation was developed further. The idea of classical Utopia has lasted until the French Revolution. The story of the classical Utopia of A.C. 1500 scarcely requires inordinate explanation. A city of the mind ultimately compounded of Hebraic apocalyptic and platonic cosmology, its ingredients are never far to seek. In the 1600's and the 1700's the Baroque city pattern has developed. The scale problem had been taken seriously. The Baroque model is based on the reali ties of perception and is linked to the social and economic life of its time. In the Baroque model there is an regulating model that controls the visual design and the scale of the building the open spaces and the whole settlement. The Baroque treatment of an urban space is a logical development of the design of buildings. The architects were very much interested in organizing masses to provide effects of recession and movement as a building was viewed from different directions and distances. But in large designs, where the architect was free from restraint, wings were extended to actually capture the adjacent open space; or buildings were ranged entirely around the space. After the French Revolution, as the populace increasingly entered the picture, not only the idea but also the empirical condition of society became of significance. Interest was re-directed; and abstract notions of morality were softened by the demand that morality should become real,, so the contemplative platonic model yield to a far more energetic Utopian directive. Such vision, the basis of the activist Utopia of the Post-Enlightenment was presumably first solidly fuelled by the stimulus of Newtonian rationalism. While the Enlightenment criticism clearly modified the content of Utopia it exercised conspicuously little influence upon the form; and, whatever the activities of the noble savage may have been, Utopia's continuing preoccupation with classical figure and decorum is one of the more notable characteristics of its early activist phase. But at the end of the 1 9th century Auguste Comte, Charles Fourier and Saint-Simon represented something of an historical cul-de-sac. In full nineteenth century they were operating in a version of the Enlightenment tradition; and necessarily, for better or worse, this tradition had begun to wear thin. Auguste Comte and his supporters argued for positivist Utopia. In the 1 9th century practice of the Baroque had been difficult because of changing needs and improved technology. Since the factory and hospital buildings in which function is very important had increased in this period the functional aim was more important than the aim for status. To prevent unhealthy urbanization, garden-cities, lineer cities and industrial cities have been planned by the planners of 19th century. By the 20th century the problem of the city changed its dimension. The loss of symbolizm was considered. In the 20th century logical positivism appeared. In this philosophy of logical positivism, positivists suggested inductional and rational tradition in the natural sciences. In the 20th century there were also rationalists which argued for traditional approaches and irrationalists which argued that everything goes. Thus, a chaos has been lived in the philosophies of urbanisme. In chapter 3, the reconstruction-laws, related with the city planning which affect the formation of a city in Türkiye have been studied. Since the grouping of these laws make it easy to research, the reconstruction laws are divided into 3 groups. These are the regulations on planning, the regulations on financial and legal problems and the regulations on the application of reconstruction. In Chapter 4, the principles which effected the philosophies and the theories of the city form in 20th Century in Europe have been studied. In this chapter sixteen principles which govern the city form were accepted by studying the related literature. All of these principles are directly or indirectly related with each other. So it is difficult to study these principles separately but to the able to analyse the reasons of city form and principles of urban planning and the city reconstruction-laws a certain systematic was needed. At the end of the study about the process of the urban planning all around the world from primitive age to now, it is seen that all architects and planners have considered some of the principles. In the Chapter 5, according to sixteen principles, city formation, urban planning and the reconstruction-laws in Türkiye has been analyzed. In this chapter İskilip has been analyzed acording to these sixteen principles. It has been seen that; in Türkiye, formation of the city, urban planning and the reconstruction-laws which effects planning and the form have been produced without considering these principles. The laws which were in force did not and does not satisfy the urban needs. The reconstruction plans are not based on any principles such as the ones mentioned above. With these plans while the density of building and the density of street in İskilip have been increasing, the density of green are as has been decreasing, whereas the population has been constant since 1 948. In the 6th Chapter the consequences of the study are given. According to the analysis made in the thesis the principles which are considered in the developed countries mostly are not taken into account in our country.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1992
Anahtar kelimeler
Kent planlama, Türkiye, İmar Kanunu, İmar planları, Şehircilik, Urban planning, Turkey, Building Law, Zoning plans, Urbanization