İstanbul'da üst gelir dilimine ait konut alanlarının yer değişim süreci

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Tarih
1991
Yazarlar
Marulyalı, Yeşim
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Özet
Özellikle nüfus artışı ve toplumsal gelişim hızı yüksek olan ülkelerin büyük kentlerinde, şehirsel fonksiyon alanlarının zamanla değişikliklere uğraması kaçınılmaz bir gerçektir. Çeşitli ekonomik sınıflardan ailelere ait konut alanları da bu şehirsel gelişme süreci içinde, mekansal ve niteliksel değişimlere uğrarlar. Hazırlanan tezde yapılan araştırmaların odak noktasını İstanbul'da yüksek gelirli ailelere yönelik lüks konut alanları oluşturmaktadır. Amaç bu türden ailelerin bugüne kadar gelişen konut değişimi süreçlerinin, değişik konut ve konut çevresi anlayış larının ve bunun ne gibi dış etkenler tarafından yönlendi rildiğinin araştırılmasıdır. Ayrıca kullanıcıların şikayetlerinin ve gerçek beklentilerinin gelişiminin incelenmesi, eğer bu değişim süreci yanlış bir yönde, bilinçsiz planlama ve eksik analizlerle gelişiyorsa, bunun yarattığı sorunların araştırılması ve getirilecek çözümlerin oluşrulması, tezin inceleme konuları arasında yer almaktadır. Bu bakımdan üst sınıf kullanıcı kesimini, konut alanlarının seçimi ve değişimi konusunda yönlendirici fiziksel, sosyal ve kültürel faktörler araştırılmış, bunların en etkin olanı örnek bir bölge üzerinde yapılan anketlerle ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Bunun yanında İstanbul da lüks konut alanlarının geçmişte ve günümüzde hangi bölgelerde yer aldığı, gelecekte ne yöne kayacağı, yapılan araştırma ve anketlerle ortaya konulmuş, bu konuda gelişmiş batılı ülkelerle karşılaştırmalar yapılmıştır. Sonuçta üst sınıf kullanıcı kesimini konut alanlarının seçimi konusunda en çok etkileyen faktörün, konut alanının şehirsel, fiziksel ve sosyal konumu olduğu açıklanmış, lüks yerleşim bölgelerinin de site anlayışı içinde, metropoliten merkez dışına, daha az gelişmiş alanlara kayacağı ortaya konmuştur.
It is an unavoidable fact that metropolitan functional areas undergo locational and qualitative changes within time in metropolises of countries where speeds of population growth and social changes are high. As a result of this fact, residential areas of families belonging to various economical classes became stages of locational and qualitative changes within this metropolitan development process. The thesis prepared aims to analyse the process of change luxurious residential areas in Istanbul where families belonging to high income class live. The problem is that some areas become famous and new settlement styles arise from time to time in Istanbul and families having high income levels prefer and favour these areas, demand for residences increase and consequently prices of land and residences increase excessively. These developments cause negative effects on some districts such as high intensity of population, noise and disorder; some residences transform as offices and some others are occupied by families having lower income levels and thus these districts lose their elegance. As a matter of fact, these families having a high income level and who are a minority in society are considered as a model by families of lower economical levels in view of concepts about locations and qualifications of their residences, and their settlement features reflect in settlement areas of lower economical classes and therefore these families of high income level have great influences on locational changes. of settlement areas in metropolitan settlement areas in metropolitan development. Therefore, all researchs : to be made within the frame of this thesis will be related to families having high income level. IXThe purpose is to study in detail locational and qualitative change of high level, luxurious residential areas in Istanbul where locational changes of metropolitan functions occur very rapidly, to emphasize the importance of problems which may arise soon and to clearly show that a more correct and planned approach is strictly necessary. Researches made in this respect, show that there are three main groups who play roles in locational and qualitative changes of ÇŞSi dent ial areas, during metropolitan development process. These groups are; - Users - Investors - Planners. Each group tries to direct metropolitan locations and formations of settlement regions according to its own wishes, interests and expectations and while doing it, is influenced by various physical, social and cultural factors. There are also physical, social and cultural factors guiding "users group" of high. income. level which is the focus of this research, in choosing and changing settlement areas. These factors can be examined under six different, groups. 1) Location of residence - Location in the city - Physical features of environment - Social features of environment 2) Kind of building -unit number in structure 3) Age of residence 4) Size of residence 5) General architectural aspects and landscape picture of residence and its environment 6) Interior equipment and environment of residence Surveys and inquires made within frame of thesis, it was tried to determine which of these factors related to residence itself or its environment is more effective and plays a more important role in choice of familieshaving a high income level. First of all, the changes and developments in view of metropolitan location and quality, and changing and developing reasons of luxurious residential areas of Istanbul were examined from past upto date and it was clarified how the concept of famous and favorable settlement regions were created by passing which stages. Afterwads, a residential area was chosen as an example according to today's concept of "elegant settlement region" and inquiries related to said problem were directed to the users and investor of building. In addition to determine most effective factor in choosing a residence, it was included also within the scope of thesis to estimate how residential areas of high income families would be developed in view oiff their location in Istanbul and what problems this development would bring about. For this purpose, in order to make comparisons with the Istanbul example and to use as a model in some points, changes of metropolitan locations of settlement areas in two models chosen from developed western countries were also examined these two countries are U.S.A. and England. The evolutions which these two countries experienced were compared with the results obtained from inquiries directed to users and investors in Istanbul example, and the events which can be considered as a teaching lesson and the points on which more attention should be paid have been determined, According to data obtained from these bi-directional researches, luxurious residential areas in Istanbul were first Pera and surroundings as from thirties and then shifted to Cihangir and Ayazpaşa and later on to Şişli and Maçka Upon increase of transportation facilities and construction of Bosphorous Bridge, some residential areas of high income families were formed in Anatolian site and in the direction of Tekirdağ city. As the population increased in Istanbul luxurious residential areas were extended to Levent, Etiler and Bosphorous coast in Trakya site, to Baghdad Road (name of a famous road) and Surrounding in Anatolian Site and to Yeşilköy, Yeşilyurt and Florya in the Golden Horn Side. And today, appearences of residential areas of high income families in Istanbul have changed a lot. Together with rapid population growth and social changes, xilarge empty lands suitable to build residences became very difficult to find and as a result of this, a new concept of residence model have arisen. This model can be described as a "housing estate" consisted of a group of buildings instead of a region or district. Today, regardless of its location in the city, the families having high income level prefer these housing estates which are constructed in large lands generally in surroundings of cityaand which meet certain standarts. The inquiry study made within the frame of this thesis was conducted in such a housing estate. According to the results obtained these housing estate which offer a comfortable environment to the families in view of physical and social features and which will keep its properties for a long future, will remain as a concept of settlement model which will be preferred both by users and investors also in future. It seems that luxurious residential areas will shift to areas outside,the metropolitan center and not urbanized yet. Investors and users also share this opinion. This event of escaping from the center of city which will happen in Istanbul in near future may be described as a "decentralization" event which western societies experienced long time ago. As it is known, development of residential areas in metropolitan formation completed the process of concentration-decentralization-reconcentration, to a great extent if not completely, in developed. countries. Concentration stage of this process is just to be completed and decentralization stage just to start in Istanbul. In order to minimize mistakes in this transition period and to establish planned and studied settlement areas, the problems with which western countries encountered should be considered and it should be avoided from making same mistakes and ecountering same problems. So according to these aspects two main problems are to be solved, before the evolution becomes more rapid. The problems are; - The negative conditions caused by the decentralization xiiprocess such as the disorganization of the inner city by the traffic coming every day from the suberbs or isolating the non-working members of the family from the center of cultural activities. The decay in the inner city which will be destroyed to make room for roads and parking lots and the negative conditions in the neighbouring districts which will be left to deteriorate. So measures must be taken in order to solve these two problems, which will create those negative conditions in Istanbul First of all the private enterprise must be encouraged for the creation of the new luxurious residences instead of squatter areas which are located in the most valuable areas in the center of the city. Besides this the decentralization process must be developed under control and according to a complete, perfect plan.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
Konut alanları, Housing lands, Yerleşim yeri, Location area
Alıntı