Türkiye'de taşınmaz kültür ve tabiat varlıklarını koruma olayı ve korumaya halkın katılımı konusunda yardımcı bir araştırma

Şahin, İsmet
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada Türkiye'de Taşınmaz Kültür ve Tabiat Varlıklarının Korunması olayını incelemeye çalıştık. Taşınmaz Kültür ve Tabiat l/arlıkları ile ilgili kavramsal açıklamalar tarihi gelişim, tarhibatın nedenleri, korumanın gerekliliği ve sorunları, ilgili kurum ve kuruluşlar, koruma politikaları saptanması, koruma kararları ve tarihi çevre koruma sürecine halkın katılımı ele alınmış bu konuya bağlı olarak, örnek kent seçilen SİVAS'ta koruma sürecine halkın katılımı ve tarihi çevrenin korunmasında öneri çalışma metodolojisinin uygulandığı bir çalışma yapılmıştır. Bilindiği gibi Türkiye'de tarihi miras kötü korun¬ maktadır. Özellikle, büyük şehirlerde bulunan tarihi çevrelerin korunması için hiç bir tutarlı politika güdülmemektedir. Hızlı şehirleşmenin etkisiyle eski şehir bölümleri büyük baskı altında kalmakta, süratle bozulmak¬ tadır. Tarihi çevrelerin köklü ve etkili biçimde koruna¬ bilmesi için, korumanın gereğine geniş halk kütlesinin inanması gerekmektedir. Halka bu inancın aşılanması ise çok önemli olmakla beraber uzun zaman isteyen bir iştir. Çünkü Türkiye'de ne sosya-ekonomik durum nede gelenekler bu girişime yardımcı olmaktadır. Bu nedenle devletin konuya dikkatle eğilmesi ve korumanın sorumluluğunu yüklenmesi gereken yerel yönetimlerin, şehircilerin, mimarların ve restorasyon uzmanlarının tarihi çevrelerin tahribini durdurmaları gerekmektedir. Koruma çalışmalarının, genel kültür ve tarih yorumları içindeki yeri, korumadan beklenen sosyal ve ekonomik yararlar bu yararları en yüksek düzeye çıkartıcı tutumlar ve yöntemler bir devlet politikası içinde saptanmalı ve devlet koruma sorununa dolaysız olarak sahip çıkmalıdır. Devletin saptadığı politikaya uygun, etkili bir koruma uygulamasını yürütürken çalışmaları yönlendirecek temel il¬ kelerin saptanması ve bunların yaygınlaştırılması görevi, genellikle koruma planlaması, aşama ve yöntemleri Kültür Bakanlığı Taşınmaz Kültür ve Tabiat Varlıklarını Koruma Kurullarınca geliştirilmelidir.
By many countries in old over the works condider. the preservation of their significant historical works of art has been evaluated as a main part of their cul tural policies. Under the pressure of this development which began in the second half of the twentieth century, the maintenance and presevation of monuments have become a cultural component of environmental preservation. The concept of monument has been enlarged. One monument has superseded its place to a monument group or a monument region which has more significance. We are corious whether this is an expression of nostalgia to the natural life conditions which we once possessed and then completely lost. No matter how we answer this question, the mainte nance and the preservation of the mounments should ; be the primary public reponsibility of today's generation. International institutions give their support to this progress. Various types of propaganda, professional advice and international meetings are the products of efforts which are made to create a worldwide awareness about the concept of presevation of monuments. But as the realization of this thought involves fiance, date about the sturcture of art and science, and the problems of economic and technological acceptance; the degree of succes varies from one country to another. As we all know the solution of these problems depends on many factors ranging from the ones that come out of the sub ject to the decisions mainly political. In spite Df all the difficulties, most of :the countries approve the taks and deal with it courageously. IX However, we are still at the very beginning of this taks. Because with all its width and cDstlyness, the accomplishment of it can be provided only when the main forces of the states and their governments command the problems and when the specialists are trained to apply the theoretical studies. Besides historians, art his torians, etnographers, archeologists and sculptors who should all work together, architects own a special sig nificance. arch the thDU make ledg ti ve shou can day. poss thou the cult In i itect wishe ght w the e, wi and Id ma not b But ible gh no stude ural ts c mus s of ith imag th h with ke: t e sa whi to c t th nts nece lassica t be a human his men ination is skil his p he imag id that le educ reate t e whole of arch ssities 1 def "home being tal a s com 1 to ercep inati this ation he ma. It itect init -uni s at bili e tr tran tivi ons ima the in f is ure ion of versal every ty, an ue wit sf orm ty in be tou ge is new g ramewo also p to the arc is" sta arc h hi the arts chab thrD ener rk o ossi dee hitec who c ge of hitec s tec theor ; an le an ughly ation f thi ble t p emo ture on p lif t sh hnic y in arch d fe val s, i s im o di tion, an receive e and ould al know- to prac- itect İd. it id to=- t seems age rect :. : al and In the countries which possess a highly rich tradi tion of culture with plenty of various monuments, his torical cities, archeological sites and a unique uns poiled nature, and Turkey is one of these countries, it is certain that every architect, sooner or later, will confront a problem involving the preservation of cultu ral environment. It may be inadequate to explain a subject such as the planning of historical environment which directly concerns the society and has different aspects, with only technical information. It is also necessary to emphasize what the conceptual dimensions Df the problem can be. The determined characteristics of this dimen sion is that it exists both in every stage of the plann ing process and also during the application of it. Mostly we tend to believe that the reasons of the development in our environment (and also the other environments) are originated from actual conditions. Nevertheless we always feel suspicious, and direct our attention to the past. Lie search for the historical relationship between what and why we live or can't live and the past. This means an introduction to search the meaning of the environment (space). Furthermore we have already learned that this environment union we live in is not only a systems consisting of objects but also a product determined by historical contexts- This also means that uie have already learnet that there is a value of usage and besides a value of change. In our country the shortage of housing is 40.000 a year. In addition to this, substructure investments such as schools, hospitals and hotels should be realized, If we look from this point of view historical environment constitutes - a great potantial. When we search the bene fit cost analysis concerning the investments in this field, to restore the old cost less than to build new ones. By restoring the historical buildings without destroying their architectural and artistic characteris tics, we can use them functionally. Ue can save consi derable amount of money by making suitable adaptations In short, we can attribute a re-newed value Df usage to the historical environment. While generating a renewed value of usage, we can manage to last their documentary aspects by extending the life time of the buildings. In this way we can construct the relationship of the artistic and symbolic elements of the buildings with the users. Besides the value of usage of the historical envi ronment, it has its values beyond usage, values that can not even be included regarding any economic stan--. dards. Every structure and every object consist skills in the selection of materials, in the form.and in the colors and in proportion. The environment which had a physical quality once, turns into a symbolical character. This symbolic environment with its unique language keeps a huge number of our associations in a continuous dynamism So the present and the past be come symonym and synchronic. If we Bre attracted and affected incredibly in the from and content of certain works of art, this originates from the sufficient identification of the past to some extent. For this reason, the environment which we call historical has always a contemporary character in fact. Each society in the development of history had created an environment just like the one we are creating today. The environment of itself. As long as we find the methods of emphasizing, our mental projects (designs) that we plot for the future will be more enormous and. more human. Moreover, the place of earth that we live on is full of intense and endless data. The expressions XI that are used for our country "cradle" or "bridge" of civilization emphasizes very important symptoms beyond sentimentalism. We can take advantage of the processes, documents, objects, etc. of the past, ?).. unless me are partial. Countries which aim at the development and civilization but minimize the impor tance of historical environment can not be successful. From this point of view, the necessity tD possess the historical environment wiil always have a significant place in nationalization. But is it fair tD say that we practice this principal full? tere tion of t audi hist on t the is s the whic poss them The sted hav he q ence oric he b peop poil obje h on ible con eff in e de uest for al e oldn le w ing. ctiv e da to not ıcıen the s velop ions the nviro ess, ho ea But e sup y. T convi be s ey o ub je ed i to b ever nmen unco rn t thi port hey nee aid f our ct ^ h s put e ans incr t and nscio heir s kin of t will them, to be instit ow many into p wered. easing nature usness living d of pe heir so look fo And m seriou utio are ract hie dest. Ill on i by j ople cial r it easu s. ns wh as of ice a are t ructi e can nsens the d are iden. It res t ich pre re d he s on o not itiv estr anni tifi is aken are ın- serva- nly some Drry f the comment ity of uction hilating cation not against In this case two groups occur, on one side people who are trying to preserve the historical environment in order to prepare the theories of the future, and on the other side people who don't care about it. Both, of them are the pradoxical products of the established society. In order to determine how we can preserve our unmovable cultural products, we have to go back and examine some of the works: What situation are they in today and what are the reasons of this situation? Even if we put dut rapidly destroyed houses, r,z streets, historical cities and towns aside and examine the monumentel works of art, again we can see nothing to be proud of. Most of these monumental works of art seem entirely unharmed and even some of them give the impres-sion that they are preserved in a very good con dition. However, when we have a close look to these and especially when.iwe go inside, we can easily detect in what degree they are destroyed and ruined, without' the need of a scientific studuy. The only reason for Xll our by h uncD supp ding As w by h nans Huma inst subj İDng when indign umanbe nsciou DBEd t s can e alwa uman b idered n kind rument ect. terms iiie le atio igns sly. d kn not ys s eign to is in Lie to ave n is that harm was given to these works themselves whether consciously or There is an expression everybody is qui and is believed to be courect: Bull- survive without the breath of human, tate that monumental works are spoiled s themselves, this expression can be be. invalid. This is not true Df course, both an indispensable and also a dangerous preservation as the is in every other sub know well what will happen in short and the buildings in natural circumstances them alone with their fate. Though harmed during the 1ars, many castles and city walls which continue existing are worn out, spoilt or even vanished withoud the destrion of human hands. Unless real estate or onreal estate archeological works of art which are obtained by excavation are restored and taken into preservation they will be ruined and vanished in a short time. In order to determine the right role of human beings in the action of preserving we have to see the rihgt and wrong aspects of the buil dings. There exists a reality. All monumental works except the religious Dnes have lost their original function. It is impossible to think ofLa bath, a Hoslem technological sDhool or palace continue their original function. Neither the economic system make : it possible for them to go on their original function, In this case we have. to choose the right function, original function or the most likely function; and by arranging and restoring the works of art according to this function we have to prepare them with the least diversion from the original architecture, to the future generations. It fact, various technical specialists who endorse the Ldestern technology but have to apply it in Turkish standards (norms) are facing these problems. Especially the architects and city planners are affected greatly bay the economic situation, social and cultural struc ture and value judgements and their selection at random so they have been trying to set up a healthy and an efficient definition of professin. Besides, the subject of preservation is more complex and it carries all the xm abstractions, not easliy handling and the difficalty to affect the cultural problems. A house or a rDBd meets some sort of demand, they have certain purpose. But we are not suve whether there is a demand for a preserved street or a part of a city. We don't know who will be content with these works. Because of this we feel the necessity to prove that that the "preser vation" is a must to both ourselves and the others around us. What shall we do under these circumstances? Will the specialists who are concernet with the subject of preservation try to lay the foundation for a general, social and cultural atmosphere where this and the similar questions arediscussed freely dt will they canalize themselves to apply their profession under the existing data and facts? Uill it be the most appropriate solution to fiil the gap between the present socio-cultural atmosphere and the newly appear ing preservation rules and wait for solutions tD occur in future? We can shape the subject and the problems in this way: Turkey has a general problem of culture. We need to comment our history and culture. We should try to balance our habits with the proposed system of deve lopment. With regard to this general problem, we have to determine our purposes, fields of interes and acti vities. The questions :we contionuously discuss under the title of "preservation" reflect our worries in this general platform. It should be everybody's task to remove these worries. At this point, to evaluate the accumulation in professional standards, to conduce to application, to determine the means of application is a must. Without concentration on application in the subject of preservation, our discussions had the pre servation itself can not be very productive. In order to preserve the historical environment radically and efficiently, a great majority of the society should be made to believe that it is something of vital importance. Some attempts are being made in this subject. But to make people believe in such subjects takes a lot.of time. Especially in our country, neither traditions nor socio-economic system give the necessary support to the attempts. Because of the same reasons, government's concentrting on this subject and determining a stable preservation policy become a difficult and time needing process. Bo until a radical approach to the problem will occur, the responsibility XIV cultural and natural sources, legal arrangements tD preserve them and the role of administrative authori ties concerning their tasks and responsibilities will also be examined. In the fourth part, preservation policies concern ing the unreal estate cultural and natural sources, decisions taken on preservation methods and methodology of studies will be searched. In this part, content and dimensions of preservation concerning the preser vation polciy, general preservation pDİciy and its principles, one-to-one relation ship of economic deve lopment policies uith historical environment policy decisions concerning the unreal estate cultural and natural sources uill be examined. The problem of how people can contribute to preservation process uill be studied. Lastly, working methodolgy of the prevser- vation of unreal estate cultural and natural sources uill be be discussed. the desi part the desi Turk in t tion cult reas part the In publ gnin icip part ngin ey a his in ural Dns icip comp the ic p g an atio icip g an nd h part the and and atio lema fifth artic d pre n and ation d con ou it. Th proce natu the c n, th ntati e par ipati serva tis of p serva is c e nee ss of rai s omple e ste on ma t th on i tion deve eopl tion ompl essi con ourc x fa ps o y be ere n th ; th lopm e in dev emen ty o serv es, ctor f th rea ıs e e pr e re ent the elop ted, f th etio its s uh e pa lise xpla oces ason is e pro ed i is e pu n of diff ich rtic d il nati s of s of xpla cess n Eu also blic rea icul fore ipat als on of plann the p ined ; of pi rope a expla parti 1 esta ties, e the ion an o expl hou ing, ublic hou annig, nd ined cipa- te the public d hou ained. In the sixth part, concerning the conservation of the real estate cultural and natural sources in Turkey, the results of a questionary survey applied in Sivas, the chosen model city, are given; also the results Df a questionary survey about the thoughts of the people about the re-planning of the Sivas Cumhuri yet Square are given. The results Df bath queztionay surveys are discussed and explained.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1990
Anahtar kelimeler
koruma tedbirleri, tarihi çevre, Türkiye, protection measures, historical environment, Turkey