Türkiyede Üniversitelerin Bölgesel Ve Yerel Gelişmeye Etkileri

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Tarih
2015-07-09
Yazarlar
Altıntaş, Veysi
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Günümüzde üniversiteler eğitim ve araştırma fonksiyonlarının dışında sosyal ve ekonomik kalkınmanın en önemli aracı olarak kabul edilmektedirler. Üniversiteler bulundukları kentlerde/bölgelerde sosyal, ekonomik ve fiziksel çevre açısından canlanma sağlayarak gelişmenin itici gücü haline gelmektedirler. Özellikle üniversitelerin kuruldukları kentlerde üniversite ve öğrenci harcamalarından kaynaklı yerel piyasada büyük bir talep ve buna bağlı olarak bir arz süreci yaşanmaktadır. Üniversitelerin kuruldukları kentlerde yerel ekonomik hayatına canlılık getirmesi, kültür sanat aktivitelerini artırması, fiziksel çevrenin gelişmesi yönünde baskı oluşturması ve demografiyi olumlu yönde etkilemesi gibi sonuçlar üniversitelere biçilen misyonun dönüşmesine neden olmuştur. Türkiye’de de 1960’lardan günümüze kadar eğitimin ülke geneline dengeli dağıtılması, üniversitenin bölgesel kalkınmada ve bölgelerarası gelişmişlik düzeyini azaltmada bir araç olarak kullanılması politikaları hâkim olmuştur. Bu amaç doğrultusunda Türkiye 1992 yılından başlayarak hızlı bir üniversiteleşme süreci içine girmiştir. 1923 yılından 1992 yılına kadar sadece 29 üniversite varken, özellikle 2002 yılında her ile bir üniversite politikası ile üniversite sayısı doruk noktasına çıkmıştır. 2006 yılına kadarki 83 yıllık zamanda Türkiye’de sadece 77 üniversite varken, 2006 yılından 2014 yılına kadarki 8 yıllık zaman içerisinde üniversite sayısı  %132 artarak 179’a ulaşmıştır. Böylece 2002 yılında 58. Hükümetin programına giren “her ile bir üniversite” politikası ile 2008 yılı sonunda üniversitesi olmayan il kalmamıştır. 2008 yılı itibariyle daha önce hiç üniversite kurulmamış 41 kente ilk defa üniversite kurulmuştur.  Bu çalışma kapsamında, 2006-2008 yılları arasında ilk defa üniversite kurulan 41 kentteki 41 devlet üniversitesinin bulundukları kentlere sosyal/kültürel, ekonomik, demografik ve fiziksel çevre açısından etkileri analiz edilmektedir. Literatürde üniversitelerin kuruldukları yerlerde konut, işyeri, sosyal/kültürel aktiviteler, nüfus, istihdam, göç ve kentleşme hızı üzerinde pozitif etkiler yarattığı belirtilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, üniversitelerin bulundukları kentlere etkileri iki yoldan incelenmektedir: 1. Üniversite kentte kurulduktan sonra meydana gelen ekonomik, sosyal/kültürel, demografik ve fiziksel değişimler, konut sayısı, işyeri sayısı, kültür/sanat aktivitelerinin sayısı, kentleşme hızı, nüfus artışı ve göç ile ilgili değişimler TUİK ve SGK göstergeleri üzerinden 2005-2013 yılları arasındaki 9 yıllık dönem üzerinden analiz edilmektedir.  2. Üniversitelerin ve öğrencilerin toplam harcamalarının kentlere doğrudan, dolaylı ve istihdam etkileri, üniversitelerin 2013 yılı faaliyet raporlarından faydalanılarak, Ryan Kısa Yol Yöntemi ile hesaplanmaktadır.  Çalışmanın sonuçları, üniversitenin varlığına bağlı olarak kentte meydana gelen sosyo-ekonomik canlanmanın kent sistemini tamamen etkilediğini ortaya koymaktadır. 2005 yılında 41 ilde toplam işyeri sayısı 107.283 iken 2013 yılında %172 artarak toplam 185.583’e ulaşmıştır. Özellikle küçük ve gelişmişlik düzeyi düşük olan illerde işyeri artış oranı ortalama %190’ı geçmektedir. Üniversitenin kurulmasından 2-3 sene sonra konut üretiminde yüksek artışlar gerçekleşmektedir. 2006-2008 yıllarından 2 sene sonra ikamet amaçlı konut üretimi 41 ilde ortalama %268’lik bir artış meydana getirmektedir. 2005 yılında 41 ilde toplam konut üretim sayısı 13.773 iken, 2010 yılında yaklaşık %200 artarak 27.357’ye ulaşmaktadır. Özellikle küçük kentlerde bu etki daha güçlü bir şekilde görülmektedir. Üniversitenin kentte yarattığı dinamizmden kaynaklı olarak kentleşme hızı üzerinde de olumlu bir etki yaratmaktadır. 41 kentte 2007 yılından 2013 yılına yaklaşık 7 yıllık süre içerisinde ortalama %6,22’lik bir artış gerçekleşmektedir. Öğrenci sayısı her sene %100’den fazla artarak kent nüfusu içinde önemli bir oran oluşturmaktadır. 2006 yılında 41 ilde toplam öğrenci sayısı 166.266 iken 2013 yılında ortalama %270 artarak 449.497 öğrenciye ulaşmıştır. Yıllara göre en büyük artış oranı küçük kentlerde meydana gelmektedir.  Üniversitenin ve öğrencilerin sosyal, ekonomik ve fiziksel katkılarına bağlı olarak kentte istihdam ve ekonomik koşullarda iyileştirmeler sağlaması göç hızını pozitif yönde etkilemektedir. 2008 yılında 41 ilin net göç hızı binde -4,47 iken 2013 yılında binde 44 artarak ortalama binde -0,20 olarak gerçekleşmiştir. Özellikle küçük ve az gelişmiş illerde daha yüksek artışlar tespit edilmiştir. Dışarıya göç veren doğu ve güneydoğu illerinin göç değerlerinde negatiften pozitif yöne doğru bir eğilim gerçekleşmektedir. 2007 yılından 2013 yılına doğru nüfusda düzenli bir artış gözükmekte ve 41 ilde toplamda ortalama %4,54’lük bir nüfus artışı gerçekleşmektedir. Üniversitenin kurulmasıyla beraber kültür-sanat aktivitelerinde de bir artış olduğu tespit edilmiştir. 2005 yılında 41 ilde toplamda tiyatro ve sinema izleyici sayısı 1.460.716 iken 2013 yılında %178 artarak 2.607.945 kişiye ulaşmıştır. 41 üniversitenin 2013 yılı için hesaplanan toplam doğrudan ekonomik etkisi 6.431.610.753 TL olarak gerçekleşmiştir. Üniversitenin toplam öğrenci sayısı arttıkça doğrudan ekonomik etkisi de artmaktadır. Toplam dolaylı ekonomik etki ile toplam doğrudan ekonomik etki ilişkilidir. Dolayısıyla toplam doğrudan ekonomik etki arttıkça dolaylı ekonomik etki de artmaktadır. 2013 yılı için 41 ilin toplam dolaylı ekonomik etkisi 176.869.295 TL ve tahmin edilen toplam ekonomik etki ise 6.608.480.049 TL olarak hesaplanmıştır. 2013 yılında 41 üniversite toplamda 89.222 istihdam yaratmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuçları yeni kurulan üniversitelerin kuruldukları kentleri hızla dönüştürdüklerini çarpıcı bir şekilde ortaya koymaktadır.
Universities are accepted as the most significant instruments for social and economic development in addition to their function as educational and research institutions. Higher educational institutions gained increasing importance as they rejuvenate the social, economic and physical environments in the cities/regions they are located. In cities where new universities are established, the expenditures of these institutions and the students lead to significant increase in the demand in the local market, and thus, leading to increased supply. Due to the fact that universities stimulate urban economy, boost cultural activates, lead to improvements in the physical environment and bring favorable influences on demographics, the mission assigned to these institutions has also evolved. With the increased influence of universities on regional development, the approach to higher educational institutions has changed radically. It is now widely acknowledged that universities are not only educational institutions but they also function as the primary drive for regional development. In Turkey, the motivations behind the establishment of new universities have changed for various purposes since the foundation of the republic in 1923. Between 1923-1960, universities were acknowledged as means to extend the national consciousness and national culture over the entire country, and Turkey was considered in three cultural regions (western, central and eastern). During this period, at least one higher educational institution was established in each of these three cultural regions. Between 1960-1992, however, the endeavor for regional development became influential in the decisions made as to where new universities would be established. From 1960 onwards, the criteria on where and for which purposes universities would be established was specified in the Five-Year Development Plans. Accordingly, it was suggested that new universities should be established in provinces that are identified as centers of development and attraction. In this period, higher educational institutions were attributed with the mission to drive regional development and to reduce regional disparities.  Although some of the universities which were decided to be established could not be realized, in total 22 universities were established based on the decisions set forth in the Five-Year Development Plans During the period between 1992-2006, owing to the further involvement of the government, the decision to establish universities in more developed provinces and regional centers, which was based on the Five-Year Development Plans, was fulfilled. For this purpose, from 1992 onwards, new higher educational institutions were established at an unprecedented rate. During this period, a total of 48 new universities were established, whereas only 29 universities were established between 1923-1992. The concept of ‘foundation universities’ also emerged during this period. The period after 2006 is when the number of newly-established universities skyrocketed. As a consequence of the policy to establish ‘one university in each province’ which was adopted in the programme of the 58th government in 2002, every province in Turkey enjoyed the foundation of a university. It is also remarkable that all of the private higher educational institutions were established during this period. Over the 83 years until 2006, there were only 77 universities in Turkey. However, during the 8 years between 2006-2014, the number of universities increased by 132% and reached up to 179. These figures demonstrate the remarkable increase in the number of universities in recent years. In addition, the higher educational institutions established after 2006 are located in small- and medium-sized cities in contrary to those established in the early years of the republic which are located in central provinces. Various researches showed increasing interest not only in the increasing number of universities but also on the positive impact of universities on the economic, social and physical growth of the cities they are located. The first studies on the local or regional impacts of universities emerged in the 1960s. While these studies primarily addressed the impact by focusing only on expenditures, recent researches primarily concentrate on the knowledge aspect. In Turkey, studies on this topic emerged in 1999, and the number of studies grew significantly. The majority of the research carried out in Turkey concentrates on a single university and addresses the expenditures of the university and its students. However, universities also lead to remarkable economic, social, cultural and physical changes in the provinces they are in. Therefore, it may be misleading to only address the expenditures. Such an approach may also make it more difficult to comprehensively measure the multi-dimensional impacts of universities and provide lacking information. This thesis study addresses the impacts of universities on the provinces with a comprehensive approach. The economic and socio-cultural influences of universities on the regions they are located can be listed as follows: economic consequences, consequences related to the physical infrastructure, social and cultural consequences, and demographic consequences.  This thesis study provides an analysis of the 41 new public universities, which were established in small- or medium-sized cities between 2006-2008, on the socio-cultural\ economic\ demographic and physical environments. The studies available in the literature claim that universities make positive impacts on housing, business, social/cultural activities, population, employment, migration and urbanization rate. In addition, a wider perspective was adopted in the assessment of the impacts of universities, and other criteria as well as the amount of expenditure were taken into account.  Within the scope of this thesis, the public universities established after 2006 were included in the sample. However, some of the public universities established after 2006 were intentionally excluded. The primary concern in doing so was to evaluate cities which did not already accommodate a university. Therefore, Erzurum Technical university in Erzurum (2010), Mevlana University in Konya (2008), Medeniyet University and Turkish-German University in İstanbul (2010), Bursa Technical University in Burs (2010), Abdullah Gül University in Kayseri (2010), Social Sciences University (2013) and Yıldırım Beyazıt University (2010) in Ankara, İzmir Katip Çelebi University in İzmir (2010), and Adana Science and Technology University in Adana (2011) were excluded from the sample. These provinces already host at least one university which was established before 2006; therefore, including them in the analyses would not provide an accurate outcome.  For the purposes of this research, data obtained from the Turkish Statistical Institute and the Social Security Institution was used and the impacts of the new universities on the physical structure, economic life of the city, social/cultural activities and demographic structure were analyzed comparatively. Therefore, the impacts of new universities were assessed based on parameters such as the changes in the housing market, number of new businesses, rate of population growth, population, change in the number of cinema/theatre spectators, rate of urbanization and the ratio of student population to total population. Ryan Short Cut Method was utilized to analyze the impacts of universities on the urban economy and employment. In summary, the impacts that universities make in the city they are located was analyzed based on two aspects: The contributions of the university to the physical structure, the urban economy, social/cultural activities and demographic structure were comparatively analyzed beginning from the year in which the universities in the sample were established. Within this context, various parameters (such as changes in the housing market, number of new businesses, rate of population growth, population, change in the amount of cinema/theatre spectators, rate of urbanization and the ratio of student population to total population) were considered for analysis. The direct and indirect economic impact and change in employment figures were calculated for 2013 in the 41 cities in the sample by using the Ryan Short Cut Method. The average figures in Turkey were taken into account as the income and employment coefficient in the formula.  According to the research results, urban system is totally affected by the socio-economic changes depending on university presence. While the total number of workplaces was 107.283 in 41 cities, it increased 172% in 2013 and reached 185.583. Especially in small and less developed cities average business increment rate passes 190%. Housing production dramatically increased particularly in 2-3 years after university establishment. The average housing production increased 268% in 41 cities in 2 years after 2006-2008 period. The total number of housing production in 41 cities was 13.773 in 2005 and it increased 200% in 2010, reached 27.357. Those impacts are more powerfull especially in small cities. Universities have positive impact on urbanisation with their dynamic effect on cities. From 2007 to 2013, in 7 years, urbanisation has increased 6,22% on average in 41 cities. The number of students increases 100% each year and has an important ratio in city population. The total student number in 41 cities was 166.266 in 2006, while it reached 449.497 in 2013 with 270% increase on average. The largest increase rate exists in small cities.  Cities are positively affected in terms of employment and economic conditions by the social, economic and physical contributions of university and students to the city. Those economic improvements affected the migration rate positively. The net migration rate in 41 cities was -4,47 per thousand however, it was -0,20 per thousand in 2013 with 95% increase. For the small and less developed cities greater increase can be observed. There is a tendency from negative to positive values for the emigrated eastern and south-eastern cities' migration rate. Constant increase in population can be observed from 2007 to 2013 city populations. The total population increase in 41 cities is 4,54% from 2007 to 2013. Moreover, with the establishment of universities an increase in cultural activities is determined. While the total number of cinema and theatre audience in 41 cities was 1.460.716 in 2005, it icreased 178% and reaced 2.607.945 in 2013.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
Üniversite Etkileri, Üniversite politikaları, ekonomik etki, istihdam etkisi, Ryan Kısa Yol Yöntemi, university impact, university policy, economict impact, employment impact, Ryan Short Cut Model
Alıntı