Eyüp semtinde 18. ve 19. yüzyıl Osmanlı anıtsal mimarisi

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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
18 ve 19. yüzyıl Osmanlı mimarisinde batı etkileri, 28 Çelebi Mehmet Efendi'nin Fransa gezisinden getirdiği bilgiler ile uygulamaya geçer. İki devirde inceleyebileceğimiz batı etkili Osmanlı mimarisi, şöyle ayrılabilir; etkileşim ve sentez ile orjinal bir mimari oluşturan 18. yüzyıl, Batı formlarının direkt olarak kopyalanmaya başladığı 19. yüzyıl. Eyüp semti, ismini Halid bin Zeyd Eyyub el Ensari'den almaktadır. Eyüp'ün mezarı Fatih'in kuşatması sırasında bulunmuş türbenin inşatma başlanmış ve şehrin alınması ile caminin yapımına başlanmıştır. Orjinal planı tartışma konusu olan cami 1766 depreminde kullanılmaz hale gelince, 3. Selim önce onartmak istemiş, mümkün olmadığı anlaşıldığında günümüzdeki Barok Etkili camiyi (1798) yaptırmıştır. Yapının saçak, korniş, avlu kapılan, cümle kapısı ve iç süslemasinde neo klasiğin ilk etkilerini de taşıyan Barok öğeler görülür. Eyüp Türbesi yöreyi dini açıdan önemli kıldığından çevrede yoğun bir mezar ve türbe dokusu oluşmuştur. 18 ve 19. yüzyıllarda yapılmış olan, sırası ile Şair Fitnat Hanım Türbesi (1780), Mihrişah Sultan Türbe ve kompleksi (1795), Şah Sultan Türbesi ve Kompleksi (1800), Mahmut Celalettin Efendi Türbesi (1829), Ebud - Derda Türbesi (1835), Hüsrev Paşa Türbesi ve kütüphanesi (1855), Kirimi Hüseyin Efendi Türbesi (1783), Şeyhülislam Üryanizade Ahmet Esat Efendi Türbesi (1889), Kaptan Hasan Hüsnü Paşa Türbesi ve kütüphanesi (1896), Adile Sultan Türbesi (1899), Edhem Türbesi (?) ve üslubu sebebi ile konumuza dahil edilen Hatice Canan Hanım Türbesi (1907) tespit edilmiştir. Yapılarda çoğunlukla Batı' dan direkt kopya edilen formlar değil, özgün denemeler göze çarpmaktadır.
According to the myth, Byzantion's founder, Byzas was Poseidon and Keroessa's son, who was born somewhere in today's Istanbul. Ancient writer Hesykos of Miletos, claims that he was born somewhere between Alibey and Kağıthane, on the shore. May be Keras, the first name of today's Golden Horn, had been influenced by Keroessa. After settlement the region gained wealth, and was considered as a site - emporium, until the attacks by Septimus Severus. After Constantin reorganizes the city and selects it as the second capital of Rome, it turned out to be the Eastern Roman Empire plus an important Christian spot the with the fall of Western Roman Empire. Eyüp has always been a religiously important center since the establishment of Byzantine. At the period, Haliç region was called Cosmidion, named after a saint, Cosmas. Great scaled churches were built (Cosmas & Damianos). The region had always been outside of the castle walls, and was completely destroyed each time Arabs attacked. However the most harmful genocide and stealing occurred during the 4. Crusaders Invasion in 1204. Hun Turks, Avar Turks, Bulgarian Turks and Peceneks had tried to invade Constantinople before. Ottomans, were interested in the same way since 1400's. Orhan Gazi and Emperor Ioannes 4 had lived in peace, but Orhan used to parade with his huge army before the castle walls of Constantinople. Yıldırım Bayezid, Murat the 2nd really tried hard to conquer the city. At last, 2. Mehmet known as "The Conqueror", was able in the process. Producing colossal canons, and cutting Bosphorus with building two castles at the narrowest region, he conquered the city in 1453. XI Halid bin Zeyd Eyyub el Ensari, who was very close to Hz. Mohammed, had been in the Arab army at the time they sieged Constantinople in 668, and had died, not by a wound but from old age. Anatolian Turks had recognized him as a saint shoved him great respect for his being so close to their prophet, and for his efforts to conquer the city. The hadith said "Constantinople will surely be conquered, and bless the commander who is able to do this"; and it predicts that some holy Muslim will die during the effort before the city walls, and is going to be blessed. Halid bin Zeyd knew this hadith and when he noticed that death was close, he ordered to be buried to the closest spot to the Byzantion castle walls, until where his men were able to carry him, and wanted to be that blessed man. According to the rumor, Mehmet the Conqueror's hodja, Akşemseddin finds this tomb and the event duplicates belief for victory. At the very same spot a Turbe had started to built instantly, that would be followed by a Mosque after the victory. That is how the region Eyüp gets its name, from Halid bin Zeyd Eyyub el Ensari, and the complex that Mehmet the Conqueror ordered right after his victory. During Ottoman reign Eyüp was also outside of the city walls. First years brought the problem of a settled community, and for this reason the Conqueror brought a colony from Bursa. After this, fishing, wealthy agricultural products and the trade of these products enabled the establishment of the region. Ottoman court members and the Royal Family, as well as wealthy forecoming citizens raced with each other to get a tomb or turbe close to Halid bin Zeyd's. Eyüp had been peaceful, clean, and a perfect place to be understood as a summer place. This should not be thought different from the domestic pilgrimage, in a society ruled by Koran rules. It can easily be seen that people did not need to run away from city centers to the clean nature at that age. For the mentioned reasons, Eyüp became the most popular cemetery in Istanbul, as well as the most visited region, for religious purposes. Due to a rumor, the Conqueror's testament to the coming sultans was to gird on swords at Halid bin Zeyd's Turbe when their reign started, as victory had been granted to him right there. It Xll is a fact that Eyüp was an excellent spot for a new sultan to meet his people. Indeed Sultans obeyed, and girded on swords before Halid bin Zeyd. The 18th and 19th century architecture in Eyüp is unique, as one has the chance to observe different examples from different periods. The above mentioned importance of Halid bin Zeyd and his religious protection plus the tomb and turbes of important Ottomans and members of the royal family, kept the place conserved and original compared to the other regions in Istanbul. Europe architecture at the 18th century, came up with a reaction to Baroque and Rococo. Nationalism was gaining power, and aristocratic architecture was abused. 18th century saw the birth of architecture and Roman, Greek art was studied. At 1740's the language of neo classicism was established. Megalomaniac scaled buildings with endless colonnades, stone domes and complex plans inspired by the Roman baths were built. As art history developed, the architect had the alternative to choose different styles from different periods depending on the function of his work, and the requests from the orderer of course. Baroque and Rococo was rejected because it was incompatible with the stylistic purity and structural honesty, the architectural desires of the age. Till the fifties of 19th century, two main architectural styles carried on, neo classicism and Romantizm, neo gothic in architecture. In England, as both of the styles had been used before, there was no competition between them, and architects were able to use both, with a manner of eclecticism. Really in late 1800's, different kinds of buildings like fabriques, train stations, post offices and theater buildings were built throughout Europe combining Roman, Renaissance and Baroque architectural elements and ornament. Thus this meant that there had been nothing new in architecture, for more than a century. The unstoppable change came from the industrial developments. Cities started to change, grow like a drop of oil in water, the population increased. Buildings in suburbs for workers, which is a new form of architecture, starts to be experimented. Of course, technology brought its own materials, steel, concrete and glass. Steel and concrete was rejected by architects because they had no place in neo classicism and had no artistic value. So, engineers take the chance to built bridges, halls for world exhibitions. These were deconstructed after being used. But Eiffel, was not deconstructed, even though heavily abused by contemporary criticisms. Europe's impact on the Ottomans starts in 17th century, when the Europe Coalition was established against Louis the 14th, and forced France to find a companion, and that was the Ottoman Empire. The empires struggle to reform and recover led sultans turn their faces towards the west and this started a diplomatic relationship between the countries. It is then, that Ottoman Empire had the chance to observe western art and culture. Ottoman leaders meant to import technique and update their army, but was completely fascinated. by the art they saw. 28. Çelebi Mehmet Efendi was sent to France in 1720, to observe western culture. This is the point where western architecture had its first visible effect on the Ottoman Empire. He came back with notes, in which sometimes he had not been able to describe completely what he had seen. The firs effects were to be seen in kağıthane, Versailles Palace Gardens, Fontainbleu plans were imitated. 3. Ahmet and Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Paşa carried on to this projects. The first effects were, opening to nature and building panoramic viewed gardens. It can be said that this refreshment in design was a decoration to 3. Ahmet's addiction to pleasure, distinction. The first step was synthesizing western understanding to classical Ottoman architecture. "Lale Devri" - tulip period, brought this synthesis. Strictly geometric forms start to smoothen and ornament is refined in a more naturalistic way compared to before. The fountains like 3. Ahmet Fountain, Tophane Fountain, Üsküdar Center Fountain shows the change. The first reaction was "Patrona Halil" riot, ended up setting fire to kağıthane, burning all kiosks and gardens built. However 1. Mahmut too carried on the same manner, and a deeper change came in his time, Rococo and Baroque started to be applied to fountains, starting from Mehmet Emin Ağa Sebil, in 1740. These effects were to be applied only on smaller scaled decorative elements of architecture, as the religious and cultural testament would not accept a monument of that sort at that time. 3. Osman rejected western culture, even ordered his servants to burn the western goods in the palace. Ironically, the most radical change came in his time, the Nurosmaniye Mosque and complex. The minority artists were in the business, as they had more chance to reach western sources than Ottoman artists. Nurosmaniye was built by Architect Simeon, started in 1. Mahmut's reign and completed in 3. Osman's period. The building stands on a pedestal, 4 strong and plastically rich vaults carry the dome. The facades are dynamized by rhythmical elemente. The one and only Baroque routed plan change also occurs on the courtyard which is a half oval. This example is the milestone of Ottoman Baroque architecture. The first years follow the development of fine examples of not copying western art but editing it into the Ottoman architecture. Important monuments like Laleli Mosque and Üsküdar Yeni Valide Mosques were built. The 19th century brought more relations with western countries in means of art and technical importation. This led to eclecticism, and more chances to foreign artists. After 3. Selim' s reign had started, original experiments had left the scene and European neo classicism started, which meant copying directly from the west. During the study of our subject Western effected Ottoman Architecture in Eyüp, 18 examples were observed and been worked on. These are the Türbe and complex of Hz. Eyüp (1453), Eşüp Sultan Mosque and complex (1458/1798), Türbe of Şair Fitnat Hanım (1780), the Türbe and complex of Mihrişah Sultan (1795), Şah Sultan Türbe and complex (1800), Bostan İskelesi police dept. (1827), iplikhane - i Amire (1827), Türbe of Mahmut Celalettin Efendi (1829), Otakçılar police dept. (1832), Feshane - i Amire, (1833), Türbe of Ebud - Derda (1835), Türbe and library of Hüsrev Paşa (1855), Türbe of Kirimi Hüseyin Efendi (1783), Türbe of Şeyhülislam Üryanizade Ahmet Esat Efendi (1889), Türbe and library of Kaptan Hasan Hüsnü Paşa (1896), Türbe of Adile Sultan (1899), Türbe of Edhem (?), Türbe of Hatice Canan Hanım (1907) The Eyüp Sultan Türbe and Mosque was built right after the victory, but ruined by the earthquake in 1766. The Turbe remained with the same plan but the additional plan changes and ornament changed the whole out look of it. 3. Selim ordered architect Uzun Hüseyin Ağa to rebuilt it in 1798. There are arguments about the plan of the XV mosque that Mehmet the Conqueror ordered. E. Hakkı Ayverdi Suggests the following plan after his studies on Evliya Çelebi's explanation about the mosque. The single center domed rectangular plan was fully covered with the joining of two half domes on each side, all carried with heavy vaults. The courtyard was surrounded by 16 medrese rooms oh each side, ending behind the Türbe. A. Kuran, indicates that this would not be acceptable and proposes his plan as follows. The medrese rooms at the courtyard cover 3 sides adding the north wall, before the Turbe. The main dome is not supported by two half domes but "tabhane"s cover that area. Today's plan is a single dome carried by 6 colons, and 4 little domes at the corners fill the rectangular plan. The courtyard is surrounded by colonnades, and the medrese rooms do not exist. An extra courtyard is added on the west side, with a slope and bridge to the Sultan's Kiosk in the mosque. The Baroque effect can be seen inside the mosque, with light, white marble and mostly yellow ornaments. Outside, it can be observed on the movements of the eaves and the gates of the courtyard. As the new building had to stand on the old foundations, western effect can only be seen in details an ornament. The turbe of Şair Fitnat Hanım was built with Ottoman Barok architecture principles. 6 sides that are not equal brings the plan, that is covered with an oval dome. The windows on the first floor are rectangular, the ones upstairs are circle shaped. The interior ornament shows spesifications from the Ottoman baroque period.. The important Turbe complexes of the region, Mihrişah Sultan (1795) is unique. Circular planned Mihrisah Sultan Turbe is a part of the complex consisting of fountain, imaret, school and library. The wave Baroque motion can easily be observed on the turbe. However, the plaster colons and acanthus leave ornaments are original designs of the western effected Ottoman architecture, also giving signs of neo classicism. The fountain repeats rococo like most of the other examples. Şah Sultan Turbe is also a part of the complex consisting of sebil and school. It is more interesting to see the morphosis of 18th century architecture to 19th century XVI architecture. The plan is the mixture of square and circle. The strong piers that carry the vaults define the square, and the convex walls and vaults carrying the dome indicate the circle. The details are closer to neo classicism. İplikhane - i Amire, the wool and string fabrique is important as it is one of the first architectural samples within the industrial movement in the Ottoman Empire. Today only one building is left that is still in use by the municipality of Eyüp. The two flat apartment has 4 windows on each facade, separated by ornated plasters, that has figures close to Art Nouveau. Turbe of Mahmut Celalettin Efendi is a recantguler monument that is with covered with a dome. Because it is settled within a turbe complex, and is on the corner, it has only 2 facades. 3 windows with circular vaults take part onthe facades. Neo - Klasik is the only way to describe the situation. Is anyone reading this? Otakçılar police dept. still exists, and still is used by the police. It is a simple one flat building with a dorian columned entrance. Because of the paint and repairs, the ornament if it ever existed, is now out of trace. Feshane - i Amire is the second architectural sample of Ottoman Industry, and this huge complex continued it's productivity until the early 20th century. Now only the main fabrique is left, and the rest is demolished by the municipality. It is one of the first pre - fabrique buildings of the empire with a slight touch of Neo Classisizm. The turbe of Ebu - d Derda is a rectanguler building. Today the dome does not exist. According to a photograph by Prof. Dr. Süheyl Ünver, it used to carry a dome. There are two windows on the facade, and the iron work on these show signs of Neo Classisizm. The turbe of Husrev Pasha is a domed, rectangular planned building taking part in a complex consisting of other turbes. Because of this there is only one facade, on which we can observe Neo Clasizm, with vaulted windows. The library of Hüsrev Pasha was xvrt built in 1839 right opposite of the turbe. Plasters, and circular vaults, acanthus ornaments under the roof take part. The turbe of Kirimi Hüseyin Efendi, has a rectangular plan and has no roof or dome. It consists of columns on a 70 cm'lik platform and an architrave on the top. The marks on the columns show that the platform used to be closed with iron panels. The look alike of this unique turbe is also in Eyüp and called the Turbe of Sheik of Islam Mehmet Arif Efendi. The turbe of Sheik of îslam Üryanizade Ahmet Efendi, is another interesting building with its purity. Prof. Yıldız Demiriz thinks that the building is an Ampiric monument but it looks as though, with the non ornated facades and being made of cement, it can be considered as Art Nouveau. Demiriz also points at tha possibility that the architect could be Raimondo de Aranco, who is well known with his Art Nouveau works in Istanbul. The rectangular buildings facades have only one window on each side. The turbe of Captain Hasan Hüsnü Pasha, is a rectangular building covered with a dome. Facades are covered with marble, and 2 windows take part on two sides of the door. The turbe of Adile Sultan is also a rectangular, domed building. The interior is like a house with a vaulted room with doors to both sides, to the tomb rooms. Facades are covered with marble from Afyon, and plaster ionic columns ornate the facade. Interior is ornated with 19th century Baroque paintings. The turbe of Edhem, is a square planned, domed, very simple building. The facade opens out with a big window. The vault on this window would suggest the 16th century, but the rest of the facade shows signs of 19th century style. The turbe of Hatice Canan Hanım is another unique sample, and was built during the first years of the 20th century. This sample shows the togetherness of Art Nouveau and Neo Clasisizm, which are totally different styles in Europe. For Ottomans, of course XVUl any kind of eclecticism could be used, as they had no idea of the roots of any style. The turbe is an open one, with a gate consisting of columns carrying an architrave.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
18. yüzyıl, 19. yüzyıl, Osmanlı mimarisi, İstanbul-Eyüp, 18th century, 19th century, Ottoman architecture, İstanbul-Eyüp