İstanbul - Beyoğlu Büyük Zarifi Apartmanı Restorasyon Projesi

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Tarih
2015-08-21
Yazarlar
İpek, İrem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
İstanbul'daki 19. yüzyıl apartman konut tipinin başlıca örneklerinden biri olan Büyük Zarifi Apartmanı, günümüze birçok özgün detayıyla birlikte gelmeyi başarmıştır. Beyoğlu ilçesi, Katip Mustafa Çelebi Mahallesi'nde, Pembe Çıkmazı 4 numarada bulunan yapının mimarı Dimitrios Panayotides'tir. Bezeme programı, mimari biçimlenişi, demir makaralardan oluşan kömür taşıma sistemi ve demir çöp kovası gibi özgün donatı elemanları, malzeme ve yapım tekniği ile bir dönemin karakteristik özelliklerini yansıtan yapı, döneminin yeni konut tipi olan "apartman"ı her yönüyle temsil etmektedir. Yapının mevcut durumunun tespitinin yapılması ile belgelenmesi ve korumaya yönelik projelendirme çalışmalarının yapılması, yapının gelecek nesillere sağlıklı bir şekilde aktarılması adına büyük önem taşımaktadır. Tez kapsamında Büyük Zarifi Apartmanı'nın mevcut durumu analitik rölöve çalışmaları ile ayrıntılı olarak incelenerek belgelenmiştir. Bu kapsamda, yapının mekansal yapım tekniği ve malzeme özellikleri, zaman içerisinde oluşan hasar ve bozulmalar ile kullanıcıları tarafından yapılan müdahaleler tespit edilmiştir. Yapılan araştırma ve çalışmalar sonucunda, elde edilen yapının özgün haline yönelik verilerle bir restitüsyon önerisi geliştirilmiştir. Yapının günümüzdeki çatısının özgün olmadığı ve özgününde teras çatı ile kırma çatının birlikte kullanılması ile oluşan bir üst örtüye sahip olduğu saptanmıştır. Demir makaralardan oluşan kömür taşıma sistemi ve demir çöp kovası gibi yapının özgün donatı elemanlarının işleyişlerine dair öngörülerde bulunulmuştur. Günümüzde konut ve ticaret işlevleri yüklenen, Beyoğlu Merkez Rum Kız Mektebi Vakfı'na ait yapıya restorasyon çalışmaları kapsamında verilecek yeni işlevin, yapıya en az müdahale etmeyi gerektirecek ve yapıyı en doğru şekilde ifade edecek bir işlev olmasına dikkat edilmiştir. Yapının bulunduğu Beyoğlu ilçesi, turizm ve ticaret işlevine sahip yapıların bölgedeki artışıyla kültür ve sanat merkezi olma özelliğini yitirme tehlikesi ile karşı karşıya kalmıştır. Özgün işlevi olan konut kullanımını, değişen bölge koşulları sebebiyle devam ettirmekte zorlanan Büyük Zarifi Apartmanı'nın "Rum Kültürünü Araştırma Merkezi (RUKAM)" olarak yeniden işlevlendirilmesi önerilmektedir. RUKAM, kültür ve sanat yoluyla ulusal ve evrensel, geleneksel ve çağdaş değerler arasında sürekli ve kalıcı bir etkileşim sağlamayı hedefleyen bir karşılaşma ve diyalog mekanı olarak tanımlanabilir. Yeniden işlevlendirmeyi kapsayan restorasyon projesinde özgün plan şemasının korunmasına ve yapının özgün mekansal özellikleri ile cephe düzeninin yeni işlevine en az müdahale ile uyarlanmasına özen gösterilmiştir. İşlevlendirme öncesinde yapı için en kısa zamanda mevcut hasar ve bozulmalarının giderilmesine yönelik önerilen müdahalelerin gerçekleştirilmesi gerekmektedir. Temizleme, sağlamlaştırma, bütünleme gibi müdahaleler yapılmadığı sürece her geçen gün yapının daha fazla bozulmasına sebebiyet veren sorunlar ortadan kalkmayacaktır. Yapının sağlıklı bir şekilde yaşatılabilmesi adına önerilen restorasyon çalışmalarının yapılmasının ardından, yapının sürekli bakımının düzenli olarak sağlanması gereklidir.
This study aims to document the recent condition of Grand Zarifi Apartment, which is located on the lot numbered 29, in block 469, in Katip Mustafa Celebi Neighborhood, in Beyoglu district of Istanbul city, to examine the historical development and to prepare a restoration project for the conservation and sustenance of the building. Even though no information regarding its year of construction was found, due to its architectural style resembling Art Nouveau and based on studied maps and documents, Grand Zarifi Apartment, the architect of which is Dimitrios Panayotides, can be dated back to 1858 – 1883. Grand Zarifi Apartment was built by Eleni Zarifi, who is a member of a great banker family which is called Zarifi Family. The building, which reflects the apartment design concept of its time, has largely preserved its authenticity with its ornaments, building components, local features and construction techniques. The reasons why Grand Zarifi Apartment was chosen as the subject of this study are, beside its above-mentioned features, the facts that it has not been documented with a project drawing up to now and it is in need of an urgent restoration. Grand Zarifi Apartment has first seen at d'Ostoya maps, which is prepared between 1858 – 1860, as two volids with Minor Zarifi Apartment. Based on 1868 – 1945 Oriental Trade Directories (Annauarie Orientale) studies, Grand Zarifi Apartment is registered in 1883 at Pembe Impasse for the first time and defined as "Ecole la Communaute Grecque de Filles" which means "Greek School for Girls". Eleni Zarifi, who was built the Zarifi Apartments, was a very charitable person and especially she doted on orphans. Eleni Zarifi helped Yedikule Balıklı Greek Orphanage so many different ways, consistently. In 1888, Yedikule Orphanage was decided to transfer to Big Island (Gr. Prinkipo) because of its population increase; but, due to problems arising between the Greek community and the Ottoman state, the orphans could not tranfer to Big Island. As a solution, the orphans were located to Zarifi Apartments, temporarily. By this way, between 1888 and 1903, Grand Zarifi Apartment was a place for orphans. On the other hand in that period, an orphanage should had an educational mission for to get permission from the Ottoman state. So, this is the reason that Grand Zarifi Apartment was registered as 'school' at Oriental Trade Directories. 1904 – 1906 Goad maps present Grand Zarifi Apartment, not only with its borders; also with its construction type, storey height, opennings and entries, roof style and covering informations and defined as "Apparts de L'ephorie Greoque" which means "Apartments Belonging to Greeks". For the first time in 1912, Grand Zarifi Apartments was also registered as "Apartments" with its residents at Oriental Trade Directories. In the Ottoman Empire, the first examples of apartment building typology was built in Beyoğlu - Pera. The process to apartments from single family dwellings, was evolver and gradual. The factors behind this process are related to increase in population at that district by economic development in Galata. Commercial development within in the city walls in Galata by floating trade, caused to residential reduction in parallel with population growth in this district. In those years, fluent transportation network and new dwellings became the mandatory requirements for this area. As a solution, Beyoglu municipality, which was named "6th District", decided to destruction of Galata city walls. By this, the transmission between Galata and Pera gained strength and also new lots occured for dwelling necessity. At the same time in the 19th century, western investments founded a new balance of traditional and modernist impressions. The westernization related to the western residents of the district affected lifestyles and everyday life habits. As a result of this and population growth, especially from the middle of the 19th century, new kinds of housing forms evolved. 1904 – 1906 Goad maps express this evolution by separating dwellings into three groups; maisons, habitations and apartments. Habitations represent multi-family dwellings that occured between maisons which can defined as traditional single-family dwellings and apartments. In habitations, storeys were not completely seperated from each other because of the common use wet areas such as toilets and kitchens which were mostly placed in the ground floor; so, the residents must share the same habitat in the building. After wet areas were located to every storey and then every flat, the floors literally apart from each other and the apartment type dwelling was born. Grand Zarifi Apartment is the earliest samples of these type of dwelling with its space organization, construction materials and details such as mechanical bells above the entrance doors of the flats. It is essential that Grand Zarifi Apartment is restored and given an appropriate function so that a building of such importance is conserved and this heritage is transferred to the next generations. In the context of this study, interventions for repair and proposed technique methods are explained in detail. Because of the transformation that occur over time in the region, the building has difficulty to maintain its dwelling function that the original function. It is considered that the building, which is owned by Beyoglu Merkez Rum Kiz Mektebi Vakfi, should assume a function that respond the requirements of foundation and the region as well as the building itself. Against the case that forming the identity of the Beyoglu district of arts and culture facts will be in demand to replace with tourism and trade, Grand Zarifi Apartment is recommended that used as Research Centre for Rum Culture and Art (RUKAM). The general objectives of the RUKAM are: to engage conservation, documentation and dissemination of archival material relevant to Rum community; dissemination of the archival material to researchers as a means to promoting research, as well as to second and third generation refugees interested in their culture and to research and documentation of information of oral and written historical tradition, as well as the publication of scientific studies and monographs. To sum up, RUKAM can defined as a meeting and dialogue point that aims to achieve continuous and permanent interaction between national and universal values as much as traditional and contemporary values via culture and the arts.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
Batı mimarisi, Konut mimarisi, Sivil mimari, Art Nouveau mimarisi, İstanbul-Beyoğlu, Rum mimarlar, Apartman, Western architecture, Housing architecture, Civilian architecture, Art Nouveau architecture, İstanbul-Beyoğlu, Greek architects, Apartment
Alıntı