Antalya-Perge antik kenti güney hamam strüktür analizi

Silay, Sevim
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Çalışmanın konusunu oluşturan Roma Devri Pamphylia Bölge si hamamlarından Perge Güney Hamamı, plan ve strüktür özellik leri açısından incelenmiş, komplekse ait restitüsyon denemeleri ve restorasyon önermelerinde bulunulmuştur. Bu bağlamda resti tüsyon denemelerinin bütünselliği eş zamanlı hamam kompleksle rinin bize ulaştırdıkları bilgilerin de gözönüne alınmasıyla sağlanmıştır. Buna göre 1. bölümde çalışmanın amacı, kapsamı ve yöntemi üzerinde durularak çalışmanın hatları çizilmiştir. 2. bölümde kompleksin tarihi süreci ve analitik çalışması yapılmış, tüm mekan verileri, plan şeması, strüktürel yapı (düşey taşıyıcı lar, su ısıtma sistemi), bezeme ve bitirici öğeler (yer kapla maları, duvar kaplamaları), mimari dışı buluntuları (heykel ve yazıtlar), açısından irdelenmiş; böylece yapıya ait mimari ve kullanıma yönelik sorunların çözümlenmesi sağlanmıştır. 3. Bölüm, tüm dönem özelliklerini ortaya koyan bir göz lemleme ile kompleksin tarihsel evrimini, strüktürel değişimini tanımlayan bulguların eşliğinde, strüktürel bir dönem açılımı ortaya koyar.Böylece tüm mekanlara ait restitüsyon önerileri, üçüncü boyut çözümlemeleri ile birlikte bütünleşir. 4. Bölüm, komplekse ait koruma önerilerinin ve aşamaları nın uygulama önceliğine göre belirlenmesi açısından restorasyon problemat iğine sistematik bir çözümleme önerisini tanımlar.
Introduction Purpose, Extent and Method The building which is subject of the research of this work is important because of its uniting three different functions (bathing, activities in sports and education). This building which had been erected during a continously developing period of construction, that is between the 2nd and 5th century AD, has an outstanding position among the baths of the district of Pamphylia regarding its functions and extent. Its Roman arc hitecture shows the capability of architects who did excellent designing, proving their former ability in constructing basili cas, and now in composing baths of their own style. The South bath in Perge has been consciously laid open between the years 1977-1985 through archeological excavations covering the best part of it. Thus, many data as well as research work on the building are available. The main support of this work is the investigation of the exactly defined chronological continuation of the periods, and related to this the experiments of restitution. At the first stage of this work the redesigning of 1/100 scales has been newly made, partly due to available data. The second stage was subject to certifying traces on the building and their explanation. At the final point the assumption of the original shape at the building has been considered which has led to necessary proposals for restauration. PART 2 The South Bath of Pexge In this part we get known to the seven legendary founders of the city of Perge. It is apparent that in the second half of the 12th century BC a colonisation of the Akha had taken place. Due to inscriptions the city had been taken over by the Roman XVlll- empire, that is Emperor Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD), after having been governed by several reigns. Especially under Septimus Severus (193 - 211 AD) more architectural constructions had been built and the city was given sacred attributes. The first investigation of Perge by K.G.Lanckoronski, shown in his work on the cities of Pamphylia and Pisidia, looks rather a description of travel than one on archeology of city, inscriptions and construction. In our days archeological excavations in Perge have been made by A.M.Mansel since 194 6, then being continued by J.Inan and now by H.Abbasoglu. The situation of the complex of the south bath in the south-west of the city is connected to the squares between the two main entrance gates of the city. It is assumed that the beginning of construction of the complex leads back to the period of Vespasianus (AD 69-^79), though it is more likely that its actual beginning had taken place during the time of Hadrianus (AD 117-138). The construction became important because of the adding of several buildings around the square between the two city gates during the period of Septimius Severus (AD 193 - 211). In the second stage of this part it has been tried to investigate the location of the rooms which form the complex and to compare them with contemporary examples of both time and function. It has been furthermore tried to find out the constructive and structural qualities, their ornaments and nonarchitectural findings. Room no. VI which is known as palaestra is the centre of the complex due to its main entrance and the arrangement of the other rooms. It is located in north-west. The room opens in the east by a monumental gate (propylon ) to the city square, in the south to rooms no. IV and V, in the south-west to room no. Ill and in the north-west to room no. VIII. Room no. V, called apoditeriumr which was used for sportive activities is located in south-east and opens towards palaestra along its whole northern line. The fountain is connected to the back building in the east, whereas in the so uth it remains separatedly. The open pool or natatior room no. IV, opens along its north side to the south side of palaestra. It is also connected to room no. IVa in the west. It has with its apsis in the south and a system of niches surrounding the whole room an interesting architectural aspect. Room no. IVa, a passage, opens in the east to room no. IV, in the south outside the building, in the north-east situated corridor-shaped passage to the corner of palaestra in the south-west. It is likely that there had been a different design in former periods of time. XIX Room no. Ill which is known as friçridarium is situated in the south-west of palaestra and opens in the north to room no. VII, in the east to palaestra and in the west to room no. II. Its characteristic feature of architecture is the big pool and an apsis which give room to big openings in the south. Room no. II, called tepidarium r is located in the west of room no. III. It opens in the north to room no. IX, in the east to room no. Ill and in the west to room no. I. The most important characteristics of this room are the three big openings in the south and the partly visible hypocaust system and tubuli canals in the north. Room no. 1, called caldarium is located at the western end of the opens in the north to room no. X and in the east to room no. II. The room whose excavation has not been completed yet attracts attention thanks to its apsis which opens from a central arch in the west into a three- arched space, and its hypocaust system. Room no. VII, called Klaudos Peison Gallery, is located in the north-west of palaestra. It opens in the south-east towards palaestra, in the south to room no. Ill and in the north-west towards room no. VIII. The room is attractive thanks to its rich monumental findings. Although there is no proof of it, room no. VIII, called friq/idarium, forms the north-west end of the complex. It opens in the east along its edge to room no. VII, in the south to room no. IX. Its architectural characteristics are two niches in the north-wall and a pool in the west. It is also not shure though assumed that room no. IX, called tepidarium opens in the north to room no. VIII and in the south to room no. II. What is known as praepurnium, room no. X, is located in the north of room no. I and in the west of room no. IX. However, the room on the south-east side is interesting because of its being the main water heating department. PART 3 The Historical Development of the Building In View of Change of Design and Structure In this part it has been tried in the first stage to certify the main periods of construction of the building, in the second stage assumptions related to the restitution of the rooms has been made. According to them the rooms no I, east and -xx- west walls of room no. II, room no. Ill with its part outside the apsis, room no. IV, room no. V, the columns which carry the porticos of room no. VI, and room no. VIII. Parts, belonging to the second main period are the north and south walls of room no. II, the apsis in the south of room no. Ill, the feets of the niches in room no V, and the main walls of room no. IX. The sections of the third main period are those in the north and north-east of room no. VII. The assumptions being put forward in the second step of the section as regards restitution are as follows: Room no. VI is shaped by porticos which surround a yard. The portico in the north is one-rided but can by nature be higher than the others. Room no. V is, though without exact proof of data, covered by a stone vault. It opens in the north along its edge by columns to palaestra and has three arched niches on its east and west walls. It is highly possible that room no. IV has a two-storey- high facade and a system of niches surrounded by columns which are carried by ranks, opening to the palaestra through a formation of columns. Room no. Ill is assumedly in its main section barrel vaulted and the apsis section covered by a semi- dome. This section too is decorated by a system of columns and a pool. Room no. II again is covered by a stone vault. It is probably a heated room with a niche or an opening at the upper part of the south front. Room no. I is covered by a stone vault. The central arch in the west wall opens into an apsis covered by a semi-dome. There is another series of openings above the openings in the south wall. It is a heated room. Room no. VII is presumedly covered by a wooden construction in its south section whereas the north section is uncovered. It is obvious that room no. VIII is covered by a stone vault. However, it is not clear how many openings of whatever dimensions there are. Even though there are three alternatives being put forward regarding room no. IX, it is most likely that this room is covered in the direction of room no. II by a stone vault. PART 4 Problem of Restoration The Statement of Protecting - Proposals and the Priority of Steps in Applying Them In this part the proposals of protection are divided in -xxi- two steps. In this proposals it has been tried to focus on the priorities of methods being applied. In the first step there was the necessity of facing the danger of the structural dilapidation of the building. The second step was assigned to the display of the whole building. For this reason it is necessary to determine the sections which need restoration. In this part it has been pointed out how necessary it is to deal with the building as an open display site and to find a new guide route in order to provide the safety of the antique works which are displayed there. PART 5 Conclusion In this section it has been dealt with the relations between both of the importance of location and room using in the south bath in Perge. It is understood that rising problems of investigation can be solved only by the completion of the archeological excavations of the building and its surroundings.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
Antalya-Perge, Hamamlar, Restorasyon, Strüktür, Antalya-Perge, Baths, Restoration, Structure