Avrupa Liman Şehirlerinde Kıyı Yenileme Projeleri Ve Güncel Mimarlık Yaklaşımları

Tanış, Fatma
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Bu çalışma Avrupa’daki kıyı yenileme projelerinin aşamalarını, bu sureci etkileyen faktörler ile aktörleri analiz etmeyi ve uygulamalarını ortaya koymayı amaçlar. Kıyı alanları 1980lerden bu yana yenileme projeleri arasında önemli bir yer edinmiştir. Bu sebeple liman kentleri kentsel yenileme projelerinin incelenebilmesi için bir laboratuvar olarak değerlendirilebilir. Liman kentleri terkedilmiş endüstri mirasının dönüştürülmesi ve yeniden değerlendirilmesi açısından da büyük bir potansiyele sahiptir. Çalışma, Avrupa liman kentlerinde geçtiğimiz yıllarda gerçekleşen ve günümüzde de devam eden kıyı yenileme projelerini tarihsel sebepleriyle ve “Liman kentlerindeki gerilemenin sebepleri nelerdir?”, “Kıyı yenileme projeleri nasıl geliştirilmiştir/ geliştirilmelidir?”, “Hangi aktörler bu surece dahil olmuştur?”, “Avrupa’daki kiyi yenileme projeleri arasındaki etkileşimler nelerdir?”, “Kıyı yenileme projelerinin prensipleri nelerdir?” soruları üzerinden ortaya koymayı hedefler. İlk bölüm amaç ve methodolojiyi açıklar. İkinci bölümde kıyı yenileme kavramı, kıyı yenileme projelerinin tarihi, aşamaları, prensipleri aktarılmıştır. Üçüncü bolum örnek projelerin değerlendirilmesi üzerinedir. Günümüze kadar gerçekleşmiş kıyı yenileme projeleri başlangıcından itibaren on yıllık süreç içinde değerlendirilecektir; ancak ilk örneklerinin Kuzey Amerika’da gerçekleştiği kıyı yenileme projeleri, Avrupa liman kentlerindeki gelişmeleri irdelemesiyle sınırlandırıldığı için Amerika örnekleri tez dahilinde değerlendirilmeyecektir; ancak 1980ler, 1990lar ve 2000lerde gerçeklesen başarılı olarak kabul göre örnekleri olarak siıasıyla Londra (Docklands), Genoa (EXPO’92) ve Hamburg (Hafencity) incelenecektir. Her bir örnek projenin, şehrin liman hareketlerinin başladığı andan itibaren tarihi, tarihsel süreçte bu işlevi yitirme sebepleri, kiyi yenileme projelerine duyulan ihtiyacı ve bu projelerin hedefleri, sureci ve dahil olan aktorleri ile aktörlerin rolleri, mimari ve kentsel planlama yaklaşımları ile birlikte her bir çalışma alanının değerlendirildiği bir bölümle açıklanacaktır. Gerçekleştirilememiş olan İzmir Kıyı Yenileme Projesi için atılan adımlar aktarılacak, sebep ve sonuçları ile değerlendirilecektir. Dördüncü bölümde, bahsedilen yenileme projelerinin günümüz mimarlığını yönlendirmekte üstlendiği misyona vurgu yapılarak, geçmişten bugüne liman şehirleri kıyısındaki mimari ve kentsel planlama yaklaşımları tarihsel bir çerçevede değerlendirilecektir. Çalışma, alan gezileri ve yetkililerle yapılan görüşmelerle desteklenmiştir. İkincil kaynaklarsa geliştirme stratejilerinden, master plan kararlarından, basılı yayınlardan sağlanmıştır.
This in-depth study has the intention of producing an overall analysis and description of the evolution of waterfront regeneration projects in European port cities and uses this to conclude with an exploration of the future for such regeneration projects through a reflection on the lessons that can be learned from projects both complete and under construction at present. At present, there is a lack of study related to contemporary waterfront regeneration undertaken in European countries. Therefore, this thesis aims to fill the research gaps and provide a holistic picture of European waterfront regeneration.  Port cities have a unique perspective in terms of urban renewal. They marry undisputedly industrial heritage with a historical significance geographically. As such cities, and the shipping industries central to their historical value, have undergone waves of development across time, there have been corresponding physical shifts in the ports themselves and subsequently, dereliction of key areas close to the traditional city core. It is the approaches and processes which have been chosen to regenerate these areas that are at the heart of this study. It can be argued that it would be reasonable and productive to see such projects as laboratories for the process of urban renewal on a wider scale and the lessons drawn as instructive for contemporary architecture and planning. To reach its conclusions in a rigorous and scientific fashion, this study begins by establishing a definition for a port city waterfront, and the range of waterfront types within these parameters is described. Remaining within the parameters, an overview of the requirements of such projects is taken and a lexical analysis of the term itself is outlined. This enables the study to note where individual projects vary from the generic needs and conditions of waterfront regeneration projects.  The methodology applied in this research consisted of documentary review of waterfront regeneration, and case studies based on the questions. The primary data were based on site visits and master plans. The secondary data came from development strategy and other documents provided by public authorities and academic publications. This is detailed in the first chapter along with the purpose of the thesis and other points outlined above. Contemporary projects cannot be considered without contextualizing them. They need to be framed by a global perspective, taking in port cities from St Petersburg to San Francisco, as well as by a chronological context taking in the distant origins of port cities in terms of function and scale and bringing them up to the present day via the influence of industrialization, global exploration, advances in shipping technology, and containerization: each of which has impacted the ports directly and their surrounding hinterland by proxy. This historical background is described in the second chapter and key turning points within the history are identified. Once detailed and examined, it can be argued that the developments coincide with different movements within architecture and so each time span has added its own characteristics. This is, therefore, an important opportunity to analyze the different eras and their impact on architecture. Because of their geopolitical locations and the interest port city waterfront projects have garnered from various agents and actors, regenerated port areas have somehow become a reflection of the contemporary architecture of each decade since the 1960s and provide a microscope under which key features of the architectural movements of each period can be identified. The final elements examined in the second chapter include a look at the organizations concerned with regeneration projects, the typologies of different projects as well as the organizational structure of the project itself. Four case studies were chosen to exemplify successive waves of port city renewal – London Docklands, Genoa Expo, Hamburg Hafencity and Izmir – and these are explored in the third chapter. However, the case studies do not include a project from the first wave, which is generally agreed to be located in North America in the 1960s. These projects are used only as background to the cases set in Europe, where this study is focused. As such, while regeneration projects in the United States, such as Baltimore and San Francisco, are referenced, they do not form part of the key analysis. Additional factors in the choice of case studies includes the fact that the study deals with different scales of transformation, which can be seen in the various examples. Not only that but the case studies were also selected from different decades to reflect the effect of accumulated experience in European waterfront projects culminating in suggestions for the Izmir project. The breakdown of the case studies is dealt with systematically. Building on the historical exploration of chapter two, the historical backgrounds and especially the reasons for decline are explored within chapter three. Once the reasons behind the area becoming de-industrialized are clear, the processes and approaches of the regeneration project are detailed. This involves first analyzing the objectives, for example, commercial, social or conservative. Additionally, the processes for funding and deployment as well as the organizational structure of the project will be described and analysed with regard to the apparent success of the case. the architectural and urban design approaches, and ultimately, the outcomes of the projects. Each of these elements will be explained in sub-chapters and key features uniting the projects will be drawn out. One aspect that reveals variation between port cities relates to the value placed on the land by a number of parties who are involved; be they political, commercial or social in nature. Exploring the extent of participation and ambition by such stakeholders in different generation projects is a particularly key feature of this study. Variation also arises as a result of intercultural interactions. These play an important role in the design practices hence design issues can differ in each project. Therefore this thesis will evaluate today’s architectural and urban design practices in waterfront regeneration in the framework of cross-culturalism. The final variation between the four case studies lies in the outcomes. While London, Hamburg and Genoa are considered successes which exemplify their generations, Izmir stands apart. Izmir is a port city and it has long played an important role in trans-shipments in the east Mediterranean. In fact, the city of Izmir has had the identity of a port city since its establishment in 3000 BC. But the port-city identity of Izmir reached its peak in the nineteenth century, when the city became the main entrance port of Europe to Western Anatolia, especially in connection with the industrialization processes underway all around the world. In common with the other case studies, the port area of Izmir became a derelict area after de-industrialization. The industrial zone, which is directly connected with the port, was particularly heavily affected by geopolitical changes and became vacant. Industrial buildings could not adapt to the economical and global changes and so they therefore became abandoned. As with other port cities in the world, the regeneration of Izmir’s waterfront came onto the development agenda, but the project did not come into effect as was expected. This makes it different and the reasons for this will be explored. As the case studies will show, general themes can be ascribed to the decline of port city waterfronts, which can be used to make predictions for the future of port cities which have yet to undergo such transformative projects. Additionally, principles will be identified that underpin successful projects and unite them. It is the opinion of this author that valuable predictions can be made based upon this research and analysis with concrete implications for contemporary port cities like Izmir, which are as yet to complete the process of transformation. These elements and the arguments supporting them are drawn together in the conclusions and suggestions made in the fourth chapter where a general view and suggestions for a better future direction of European waterfront regenerations will be provided. The importance of waterfront regeneration projects both in architectural history and for the future will be emphasized. Finally, the fourth chapter additionally highlights the importance of waterfront regeneration projects in the context of architectural history, suggesting that the analysis of such projects enhances scientific study. This indicates that research invested in the planning and design stages of a project is necessary for the effective development of a waterfront area.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
kıyı, kıyı yenileme projeleri, Londra Docklands, Cenova EXPO'92, Hamburg Hafencity, İzmir, güncel mimarlık, waterfront, waterfront regeneration projects, London Docklands, Genoa EXPO'92, Hamburg Hafencity, Izmir, contemporary architecture