Ses Eğitiminin Solo Ve Toplu Çalışmalarındaki Tarihsel Gelişimi Ve Önemi

Güler, Fikret Esra
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Şarkı söyleme sanatında, ses ve öğeleri büyük önem taşır. Bir sporcunun vücudunu geliştirmesi, bir orkestra üyesinin enstrümanına hakim olması, kendi dallarında basardan için belirli bir eğitimden geçmelerini gerektirir. Tıp Fakültesi'ni bir doktor adayı, uzmanlık eğitim ve görgüsünden sonra meslek dalma ayrılır. Bunlar gibi, bir solist ve koro elemanı da ses sanatıyla dinleyenleri etkileyebilmek için, kendi dalındaki kurallara göre bir eğitim görmelidir. Ses eğitiminin bu yöndeki önemi, solo ve toplu çalışmalarda kendim gösterir. Sesin yapısından öğelerine, toplu seslerin çeşitlerinden dünyaca ünlü pedagoglara değinmek, bilgi vermek, memleketimizdeki çalışma ve eğitim sürecini belirtmek için ses eğitiminin bu yönde tarihsel gelişimini açıklamak gerekir. Batı ülkelerinin sahip olduğu teknik ses imkânları ve geçmişten günümüze bizdeki çalışmaları karşılaştırmak yöntemi ile, ses eğitiminin önemini vurguladım.
Interior life of man is determined by cultural elements Music is one of them. All kind of music may create changes in human's behaviour. To sing a song, will integrate musical sounds that narrote the feelings. The first condition of singing is the existence of man's voice. Race and language facts are greatly significant in view of human voice Good interpretation of the works is subject of knowing the language with all ite details, of the language which shares the work. A work of which the words are understandble lose half of its entity. Man should not forget. That the way of good singing passes from correct and nice speaking. Our Turkish language comparing to other languages is more suitable to singing education. Mans' s voice dispose of limitless narrating power. Human being may use both his voice simply as sound, and also has a narrating power compoused of the integration of, sound and words. For this, one has to know first of all, the organisme that allows the occurence of sound and the operation form of this organism with all its aspects. A lot of pedagogues who studied this area came out and they have written works on this subject. Principol pedagogues are : Fr. A. Pistocchi (1659-1726), P.F.Tosi. (1646-1727), Benigne de Bacilly (1625-1690), Alexis de Garande (1779- 1852), Peter von Winter (1754-1825), Manuel Garcia (1805-1906), Gasparo Spontini (1774-1851), Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1866), Daniel Francois, Esprit Auber (1782- 1870), Adolf Bernhard Marx (1795-1866), Lehann Bernhard Legier (1779-1846). Adolf Bernhard Marx Practical Thorough -Bass translated the work called "Practical Through-Bass" to German under the title Music Composition Knowledge and added his own opinions and argued that the music art is own property of humans. Later Schools of Venezia, Napoli and Bologna of singing were established Founder of Bologna Singing School is N. Lernacchi, and A. Porpora is between the founders of Napoli singing School. Again famed singing educatiors Pier Franceska, Tossi and Giam Batisi Mancini (1716-1840) and Johann Adam Hiller (1728-1804) have written very important work in view of stating the specifications of singing learning methods and singing art. The most positive developments of the last years are the establishment of Turkish Music State Conservatory, and attaching it to Technical University; and to discuss Turkish Music in Turcology congresses. It will be logical to add to these happy developments the establishment of Culture Ministry Classical Turkish Music -VI- chorus, serious researches made by personal efforts and work created... It is hope that the State will consider the real identity of the art, instead of eliminating it through denying. Opera is a scenery production applied to the music, where whole or part of the words are said as songs. Opera is formed from using together a musical partition and a dramatic "Libretto" is a complete show which use from all arts expressing forms (Theatre, Mic songs, dance etc.) Opera is primalary a sounds art. Orchestra, chorus ballet scenery, costumes, other fine arts are elements which complete the frames of the voice and secures function and role taking of the voice. Although opera is an art on highest level where all the fine arts are integrated, its main essence is voice element. Music pieces are written for chorus, orchestra chamber music similar groups. As in Turkey good instruments are expensive for creating song groups, schools should have priority, willingly or unwillingly, in all school levels special Music Training courses may be held for students whose talents are observed for children and youth chorusses (During the education year or at the end of education year). In such courses limits of the talent of the child may be extended. For the ones with higher inclination they may be trained in schools giving technical music education like conservatory or music instructors school. We divide mainly in two periods, the voice training in groups : 1- Basic voice training in group 2- Advanced voice training in group For groups who reached a definite progress in voice training in group, when selecting works, the technical power and technical problems of such group, should be considered. Almost all persons of the society passes from schools (should passe). There fore the future of the society is prepared in schools. School is most effective tool in forming the economic and cultural future, when properly evaluated. The influencing function with its public and cultural importance of the music can only be directed in school with educative music training. In this aspect it may be said that the educative music student is the basis of the music life of a society, and its music's future. This reality must not be forgotten. Musical development in world's scale will be realized, when the problems of educative music education are solved. "Hafizs" and singer artiste of the ancient period altough they did not received any music education by western technics, they have trained themselves with in the "master-apprentice" order and again in this period they became famous, according to the rate of their addressing to music enjoyment. -vn Hâfiz Osman Efendi, Hâfiz Sami Efendi, Hâfiz Burhan, Sadettin Kaynak are a few of the artists, which have used the song interpretation perfectly in their periods. In the period of Republic, performers who were brought up again with good examples of singer artists of were self-educated. But after the introduction of "Voice Training" art and science in to Turkey a more regular work has been forseen. With the introduction of voice education works to Turkey in the period of Reublic Great Singer Artist Münir Nurettin Selçuk came out. Münir Nurettin Selçuk was born in Istanbul. In 1928 he went to Paris and took lessons of solfeggio and voice education. In 1953 became a teacher at Istanbul Municipality Conservatory. Under the light of the information above, I can tell that he has educated two kind of singers. In the first group there are students which he gave lessons and trained. Most of these valuable artists which are originating from Istanbul Municipality Conservatory and which took lessons from Münir Nurettin Selçuk are Tülün Korman, Nurten Erpek, Serdar öztürk. Again between the voices which has shown superior talent which are influential on Turkish Music singing education, Alâeddin Yavaşça and Bekir Sıdkı Sezgin have an important place. We should have the thought that we should develop groups formed with individual voice beauties and let them introduce to the world. Art should be a rule in worldvide dimensions. As in foreign records with Western music that we refer as flower voices, religious non-religious works influence the whole world and the listeners of fine songs. As well in our music also singing groups should be recorded with the same method. They may create a nice admiration. For this it is necessary that the chorus concept be freed from solists and individual acts, and that it reaches a line where the same level and homogenhy are attained. Chous parts of famous operas, and again Carmina Bruno, Beethoven's Ninty Symphony are works which symbolize the influence of singing training. Today chorus number in Federal Germany is over thousand in Hungary is over eight thousand. In order to conform to world standarts in our country group voice training should be considired with the importance it deserves Shortly told our society needs a valid expressing way and traiditions. In the past in Singing groups there was not a conductor for Chorus as today. The singer group used to start the execution with to sign of a senior singer seated at the head of the row, determined the style and the rythme and directed the group. -VIII- The fact that in the Period of Republic the Istanbul Technical University Turkish Music State Conservatory opened late, caused the individual works to again priority Artists which learned from each other their singing mastery, together with their music education contributed to the education of many young artists through their concerts and their albums. Real historical development of song training in solo and group work, starte with stone albums and with the opening of the radio. The concerto of previous singer masters brought a new framing period our music. In order to communicate to the world famous pedagogues the structure of the voice, their elements kinds of group voices to inform them, to state to them thework and education processes in our country it is necessary to clarify the historical development. In my thesis I have underlined the importance of the voice education by comparing the technical voice means and our country works from the past to the present. In the art of singing voice and its elements have crucial importance. A shortmants developping his body an orchestra member dominating ite instrument, necessitates a specific education for the success in their branches. A doctor who achieves faculty of medicine after his speciality training and experience is assigned to his professional branch. Like this a solist and a chorus member in order to influence the listeners with singing art they must have an education. The importance of voice training show itself in solo and group works. Song groups and chorus's that had voice training in Turkish Music, are the living witnesses of this process. For this reason I have examples of solo artists, who in the period of Republic became famous, who enlightened our future. We have considered as important the works of art, tuning and composition as music history the integration of song masters allowed us to again fine and qualified voices. The fact that we the proclamation of Republic Turkish, Turkish Music has been prohibited and West originated music's and Opera performances setting to first plan, caused the Turkish Music (even for a short period like ten, fifteen years) to be without support and alone. Turkish Music, before the appearance of radios and Trot screens, private televisions, by attaining thoraces in the classical meaning, and protecting in a very careful and sensible way the its existence, group song performances reached on a significant way the fineness gained by integration and voice training. Unfortunately for solo this development did not happen through poor examples in front of them and will market conditions pressure. -DC- There is important differences between the solo and group singers or, today's chorus song artists in view of the individual and group rules. Unfortunately in voices that owns soloist's property, egoism and coming to first plan spirit, out of cooperation spirit and discipline dominates. Where as in today's group singing technical, in motions from lowpitched total high-pitched and in opposite direction motions it is foreseen not to come die front and be obstinate. All these were performed within the historical development of Turkish music prior to implementation of voice training systems in diverse groups in a much liked and favored "Teganni" style. The pleasure of old group songs are still in the memories of artists who survived today. In conclusion in song groups most important element without doubt is the voice. It is impossible to perform music without having training and education of these voices. The voice community; which spread out through the scurves and waterside residences from the houses of moderate means people are thought to come from the religious Turkish music works, different kind of poems, composed hymns till the end of this time. Voice communities, in its historical improvement and if we also take into consideration the Ottoman Empire's being a religuous country, are accumulated about Turkish Music's religious oral work forms. The advantages of voice education is not only solo, I mean performed alone, it also plays a role in commune works. The voice community which is only equiped by musical note and repertory can be a real chorus if and only if the singer has the voice qualifications that she or he has to have. Shortly, a chorus which is made up of good voice and well-educated voice technique will be a wanted voice community around the art world. The collected singing can only be made by collected voice training systematically. If we want to come out and improve this kind of doctrine, we need teachers that know that country's social kand cultural structure and mothertongue very well. A community can continue ite presence by creating valves about economical and cultural areas and also by living oppropriately in their lives. The voice education that we'll practice will benefit from the collected voice education's base elements and it will also create a kind of voice that is convenient to be song together, soft, fused, has the qualifications of our own language, includes all the rules of voice education and can be listened without regarding strange by our citisens and artists. The human vaces are effected by the country's climate, social, cultural and economic structures. Our country has the ideal conditions about climate for voice, our country has a big percent of qualified voices The voice element is the firstly handed out subject in collected and solo works and it's the most important point that reflects a chorus's educational and musical works outside. -X- The most important usage area of community works are chorus. The chorus which is made up of human voice has great benefits about working together. Chorus doesn't only give music love and music culture to a society, it also creates real friendship between people and boras human love. Consequently, people that creates these chorus reflects the good hobits that they took from music to their enviranment. The children chorus is trained from the cradle and makes up youth chorus. Because of mis, chorus are the most important foundations in a public that effect public's music life and make their life much better. The education that is given in classes is not enough to form children chorus. More voice information should be given and more practice should be done. These foundations are seperated into groups by their educations. The biggest advantages of them are; they help to improve music all around the country, create all kinds of modern Turkish music; also help to be spread out and fasten improvement of Turkish music. As a conclusion, we see that the function and the importance of voice education is getting more each day in our country. In solo and voice community groups, the people which have voice education are preferred and the success that they have show that the voice art is getting more important each day.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Müzik, Eğitim, Koro, Ses eğitimi, Solo, Music, Education, Choir, Voice training, Solo