Bir Havayolu Şirketinde Orta Ve Uzun Vade Planlamada Uçak Seçimi Projesinin İncelenmesi

Akdil, Gökhan
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Bu çalışmada havayolu yönetimlerinin orta ve uzun vadeli planlama çalışmalarının çok önemli bir parçasını oluşturan filo planlaması konusu incelenmiştir. Birinci bölümde filo planlama işleminin tanımı verilmiş ve filolanlamanm havayolu için önemi vurglanmıştır. İkinci bölümde genel olarak ulaştırma sektöründen bahsedilmiş, havayolu taşımacılığına ait detay bilgiler verilerek havayolu taşımacılığına ait sorunlar öerilen tedbirler açıklanmışı. Üçüncü bölümde filo planlama işleminin detaylı bir analizi bulunmaktadır. İşlemin her bir kademesi makro ve miko düzeyde incelenmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde filo planlama işleminin pratik bir uygulaması, bir havayolu şirketinin yapmış olduğu bir orta kapasiteli - orta menzilli uçak seçimi çalışması şirketin incelediği konular baz alınarak açıklanmıştır. Beşinci ve son bölümde ise dördüncü bölümde yer alan çalışma değerlendirilmiş eksikler vurgulanmış ve önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
Transportation Is a means or a system of carrying passengers or goods from one place to another. Transportation is a service sector and it plays a very important role in economic activities. The inputs may be obliged to be carried from far and different places to certain and large plants and the products usually must be carried to far and different markets both in domestic and international even intercontinental manner. Besides, transportation has a great place in public life. Human beings have unlimited desires and in order to feed up these unlimited desires human beings must travel from one place to another all the time. They travel for business, for leisure, for health, for knowledge, for experience, for religion etc. When we speak of transportation, the hidden subjects of the conservation are time and money. The greater the distance between two points, the longer it takes to travel from one place to another. Today time is as valuable as money and as time passes it is called " most valuable thing in the world" more frequently. If you have time you can gain more money if you wish, but if you need time, can you buy it with money ? Sometimes yes ! Air transportation is the quickest and most expensive way of transportation. It makes distances decrease by the means of time in exchange with money. Because of these characteristics, air transportation has a great importance especially in international transportation and is itself an important sector in business activities. After globalisation of the world, air transportation became more vital. In Chapter 2 transportation in general and air transportation are examined. IX The most important aspects of an airline are flight routes, aircraft composition of the fleet and qualified personnel. The basic element of the airline is aircraft because it is the vehicle we use during transportation. So the basic subject must be selection the selection of the type of the vehicle, the aircraft, during the planning process and every department in the company must make related observations and predictions than may influence the determination in its own field. In Chapter 3, fleet planning procedure is examined. Fleet planning is the process of determining airline's future aircraft requirements. Questions are : - Which aircraft ? - How many aircraft ? - When we need them ? - Where we can use them ? - How much do they cost ? The age of existing fleet, environmental pressure at noise sensitive airports or availability of attractively low priced used aircraft are only some of the reasons why an airline would wish to review its fleet. Traditionally, fleet planning has been heavily influenced by the availability of new technology or by fleet decisions of competitors. In the past few years airlines have become increasingly aware of the prime reason for their existence and grater emphasis has been placed on service as well as revenue and cost at expense of technological factors. Airline managements are now more aware of the impact a particular aircraft can have on the airline's market share and profitability. This has encouraged the integration of the fleet planning and business planning. A shortage of aircraft capacity is not the only possible scenario that could emerge from a fleet plan. The airline may find that it has equipment surplus to its requirements and therefore sell, temporarily lease-out or trade in for new equipment. In the case of capacity shortage, it is sometimes possible to accommodate forecast traffic with the current fleet though modification of the aircraft's characteristics. This may include the adoption of higher density seating layouts, reduced galleys etc. If this is not possible or the concepts is unacceptable for commercial reasons, the airline will be forced to consider the additional equipment. Fleet planning is examined in five steps. These are ; - Aircraft selection - Market analysis - Aircraft analysis - Schedule analysis - Economic analysis Market analysis is the starting point for all flee planning activity. For this reason, it should be assigned to a higher priority early in the process. Performed in a logical sequence and done thoroughly, market analysis can provide an accurate and flexible framework for analysis of aircraft alternatives. Market analysis consist of; - Obtaining all available data for passenger and cargo markets. - Applying appropriate macro and micro forecasting methodologies. - Estimating airline share of each market. Although passenger and cargo markets have many similar analytical features, each has unique characteristics and requires individual market analysis to obtain a complete outlook for the airline. XI Basic components of airline analysis are; - Determining the capability of a particular aircraft type within an airline's route network. - Comparing the capabilities of alternative aircraft types under consideration. The results of this process is the identification viable aircraft alternatives which could provide additional or replacement capacity within the airline's existing or an evaluation of the projected effect on system revenues and costs from changes in competitive conditions. An important step in the aircraft evaluation and selection process is to evaluate the economic efficiency of alternative aircraft types. In the early days of jet transportation, this process was relatively simple. The aircraft types which could be selected for particular market application, for example long range intercontinental routes, were generally of the same size and had similar performance. Cost of operation was to the only variable which had to be considered, since revenues would be nearly the same for every aircraft of the same size. But aircraft have changed in size. Stretched aircraft offered increasing capacity while retaining performance trough gross weight increases and improvements on engines. Additionally, twin aisle jets, by doubling and even tripling the capacity have forced equipment planners to consider the affects of aircraft on revenue. An economic evaluation, including both revenues and costs, facilities a comparison of the profit contribution of alternative fleet plans and aircraft types. Chapter 4 consists of a particular of a particular case of an airline in which a medium size - medium range aircraft selections performed. The case is examined based on the sections as the airline performed its selection. Xll Chapter 5 evaluates the case in Chapter 4 while explaining the weaknesses in the method of the airline and offers an alternative method that be best used in more complex cases.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Hava yolu işletmeleri; Planlama; Uçaklar, Airline companies ; Planning ; Airplanes