Yaya alanlarının aydınlatılması

dc.contributor.advisor Küçükdoğu, Mehmet
dc.contributor.author Emir, Sabahattin
dc.contributor.authorID 66639
dc.contributor.department Endüstri Mühendisliği
dc.date.accessioned 2023-03-16T05:49:57Z
dc.date.available 2023-03-16T05:49:57Z
dc.date.issued 1997
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
dc.description.abstract Şehirde yaşayan insanlar için kaybolan enerjilerini yeniden kazanmanın, dinlenmenin ve sosyal ihtiyaçlarını gidermenin evde televizyon karşısında oturmak dışında bir alternatif olmalıdır. İşte bu önemli işlevi park ve bahçeler, meydanlar, şehir merkezleri gibi yaya alanları karşılayabilirler. Bu gibi alanlar, sinema tiyatro, kültür merkezi, spor salonu gibi şehrin vazgeçilmez bir unsurudur. Şehrin en yaygın ve doğal öğesi durumunda bulunan, yayaların bu gibi alanları hava karardıktan sonra da güvenle kullanabilmeleri, bu alanların iyi aydınlatılmasına bağlıdır. Yaya alanlarında gece yapılan aydınlatmanın amacı görsel algılamanın en iyi biçimde sağlanması, görme alanının insan üzerindeki etkisinin doğru ve olumlu olması, yaya dolaşımının rahat ve güvenli olmasını sağlayarak yayaların bu alanları kullanmasını özendirmektir. Bu çalışma, şehir aydınlatması bütünü içerisinde yaya alanlarının aydınlatılması sorununu temel ilke ve özellikleriyle ortaya koyup bu gibi alanlarda kullanılabilecek bir aydınlatma aygıtı tasannu önermektedir. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Contemporary cities where millions of people live together have special problems which require special handling. Cities which benefit the daylight during the day, should continue performing its functions and life. This is a problem which can be solved with artificial light sources. Metropolitan people generally use their home to reproduce the energy they spent during the day and to fulfill their social needs. Besides, pedestrian areas which are as important as places like theaters, cinemas, cultural centers, gymnasiums for the development of socio-cultural relationship between people should be illuminated. The subject matter of this study is lighting of pedestrian areas should be handled in this context. Lighting of cities can be examined under the following subtropics: lighting of motorways, lighting of residential areas, lighting of open sport areas, lighting of city components, lighting of industrial areas and lighting of pedestrian areas. The crucial point in lighting of motorways is that the driver should perceive all properties of the way along a long distance. For this reason, the following factors should be taken into account: the class of the motorway, lighting level of the surface IX of the motorway, uniformity of light, the relationship between the motorway and close neighborhood, the properties of the luminaries, and arrangement of luminaries. In residential areas, motor vehicles and pedestrians coexist. Although, most of the times lighting arrangement for the motorway is also satisfactory for pedestrians, there are some cases where special lighting arrangement is needed for pedestrians. Lighting of facades is illumination of historical and cultural and aesthetically buildings of the city. In such kind of lighting a technical as well as an architectural approach is necessary. For this reason the following points should be taken into account: choosing of light source according to the function of the building, the difference of glitter between the facade and environment of the lighting level according to the surface material of the building, determination of the luminaries to delineate the shape of the shape of the building. Lighting of city components is illumination of artistic objects, pools, fountains, ponds, trees, and statues in social areas. The object of lighting of trees is to delineate the volume of the tree. In pools internal lighting and impounds lighting of waterside is done to get a reflection. Artistic objects are generally illuminated like facades. In open sport areas, the main objective is to provide the perception conditions for the spectator without affecting the performance of the sportsman. In industrial areas like shipyards, ports, and factories the main purpose is a secure perception of all properties of the area. Pedestrian areas are pathways in parks, streets and squares that are forbidden for traffic. In order to fulfill the need of coming together,there areworks done to provide pedestrian areas. These areas must illuminated in order to get a good visual perception,a positive effect of the perceptual area and a safe and comfortable wandering around. The security which has a quite importance in the lighting of these areas can be examined in three places where the person is aware of the people around, where the people around is aware of the person, i.e. the person is not isolated from the people and where the person is the suitable condition to react in cause of danger. For them to be a sufficient feeling of security one need to distinguish another person from 4m of distance, hence such a level of lighting must be provided. The principles for the lighting of pedestrian areas as the fallowings:the function of the area is decisive factor for the quality and the quantity if the ligthing the full perception of the surface to the illuminated depends on the value of the glitter.And this is dependent on the material of the surface and level of lighting another important point is the uniform distribution of the ligthing on the surface and a sufficient lighting on the neighborhood of the area which is to be illuminated is also needed for increasing of the feeling of security of the people who uses the area. The luminaire used for the padestrian areas which are public areas are city furniture. To design such a product is quiet difficult for a designer.For each child,each old person each ill,each woman or man,each disabled person is his client. The usage of the city furniture beyond its object and its to man then one sense shows its richness.Besides, such a furniture must be strong to external condition and the posible attacks of the people. Lighting luminaires as they emit the light to the surface in desired quality and quantity, they join to the surrounding as plastic elements with their forms and colors. Main aim of the lighting luminaire is to direct spatial distribution of the light emitted from the lamb to the area by changing this distribution in quality and quantity in accordance to the purpose. In order to realize tihs aim, this luminaire must have same emitting and reflecting parts. Thus light can be directed to a determinate direction.The light distribution curves of the luminaire show how the luminaire emits the light.And also, in such a luminaire, then must precautions to prevent the dezzle which is important for visual comfort. The luminaire must either be above or below XI the eye level or there must be some screening before it. In addition a luminaire provides electrical connection for the lamp and protects the lamp from external effects.The luminaire must be protective from dust and moisture in that context,its confirmancy with IP standarts is expected from the luminaire.Another important point is to protect the luminaire against vandalist attacks.For this besides the use of the lasting material there need to avoid which can attract the attention of an attacker such as glass. Lastly, the efficiency of the luminaire, i.e., the ratio of light flux emitted from luminiare to that emitted from light source must be high. Luminiare used in pedestrian areas can be mounted primarily in four ways. Firstly, they can be mounted on poles of length between 2.5m and 8m.This application is the most extensive one. By using poles of different shape this can be applied in planes having different identities. Second group is the luminaire mounted on the facades and these are applied in narrow places where poles are not suitable. Thirdly, luminaire mounted on wires extended from one facade to another may have decorative effect by arranging an illuminated roof. Last group is the luminaire which are mounted below eye elevation and these are generally used in parks and gardens for guiding the path illumination. At the end of the study, according to the guidelines introduced above and by considering the functions that are expected,a luminiare is proposed for pedestrian areas. In this design, fiber optic cable is used.By keeping the light source hidden, light is transmitted to the reflector by means of fiberoptic cable and then directed to the place of action. This on one hand facilitates the maintenance of the luminaire and on the other hand it is thought as precaution to vandalist attacks because light source and similar attractive pieces are hidden. The luminiare is simple but with its traditional street lamp style it can be used both in historical and contemporary areas. Ml In future studies, the light distribution curve of this proposed design can be determined through laboratory experiments and its efficiency and confirmancy with IP standards can be investigated. en_US
dc.description.degree Yüksek Lisans
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/22718
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights All works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject Aydınlatma tr_TR
dc.subject Yaya alanları tr_TR
dc.subject Lighting en_US
dc.subject Pedestrian ares en_US
dc.title Yaya alanlarının aydınlatılması
dc.title.alternative Lighting of pedestrian areas
dc.type Tez
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