Klasik kemençenin tarihi gelişimi ve dört telli kemençenin yapımı

Buyruklar, A. Tunç
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Klasik kemençenin tarihi gelişimi ve yapım tekniği hakkında hazırlamış olduğum bu tezde, çalgıların müziğin oluşmasındaki önemi vurgulanmış ve müziğin gelişmesinde önde gelen faktörlerden biri olduğu, ortaya konul maya çalışılmıştır. Klasik Türk Musikisi çalgılarından kemençenin, gelişimi sırasında geçirdiği önemli aşamaların neler olduğu ve bu aşamaların nasıl yapıldığı, zaman ve şahıs belirtilerek anlatılmıştır. Ayrıca kemençenin yapımı ile ilgili detaylı bilgiler verilmiş, yapımında kullanılan ağaçlar incelenmiş ve standardının tespitinde kullanılan oranlar belirtilmiştir. Kemence ailesi projesinin evveliyatı ve son şekli hakkındaki ayrıntılı bilgiler bu çalışmanın içinde yer almaktadır. Genel olarak bu çalışma, klasik kemençenin tarihçesi verilerek tanıtılması ve özellikle yapımı hakkında bilinmeyen noktaların, bilimsel bir şekilde ortaya konulması olarak özetlenebilir.
In this thesis which covers the historical development and construction technique of the classical "Kemence", I have tried to emphasize the importance of musical instruments in the develop ment of music, and to demonstrate that the role played them has been one of the leading factors in this development. The important stages observed in the development of "Ke mence" on of the instruments of Turkish classical music, as well as bow these stages were achieved, have been presented by provi ding references with regard to time and presons. Furthermore, detailed information on the construction of "Kemence" including the results of studies made on the type of wood used in its construc tion as well as the rations employed in the determination of its standards are presented. The detailed information regarding tthe background and the latest status of the project on "Kemence" family has also been included in this work. Tools used in designation of music are called as instru ments, musical means or indeed musical instruments. This is rather a too much generalized definition. With a new kind of ap proach, a sound producing tool as a musical instrument should have acoustical characteristics of being able to create a music, - VII - could be included as one of the technical groups such as strings, plectrum, wind or percussion and finally it should regenerate the culture within which the peculiar music is performed. The shortage of publication about the classical "kemence" has so for caused the insufficient announcement and familiariza tion with the instrument and confusion with the other types of kemence as well. Classical kemence has been treated since the mids of the 18. century in the Palace. Until the beginnings of the 19. century, the instrument had two strings only. Those were the tones of "rast" and "neva", Later, with an addition of third string on the bass part, the number of strings had been increased to three and in this manner, it has reached to the usage common today. Classical kemence, in today's perfonmances, has been found in two different types, with one of them having 3 strings, while the other having 4 strings, Having rather a much different perfor mance technique than the other Turkish musical instruments and with 3 - stringed type anabling a narrow band of sound cepability, the performers have been interested in the latter one. However, with a contribution of a fourth string, equalization of string lengths and positioning of keys, performance has been an easy task and the sound capability being enhanced by 3 - 5 octaves. Classical kemence, thanks to its beauty of timbre, has been a vital instrument reflecting the style of Turkish Music well. In development, Kemence has been manufactured for different sizes - VIII - _ 9 - so that it would be able to perform In other keys as well. Research and development studies for kemence have been initiated by H.S. Arel and attempta have been continued reaching today, by the academicians of Turkish Music Conservatuary, nemely, C. Açın and C. Orhon. Such enthusiastic thoughts and entreprenurial ap plications have been appreciated and praised for their impact on improvement of our music and dependently our culture. Till now, the manufacturing of instruments has been in a master apprentice relationship and has constituted today's pano rama. For this reason, instrument manufacturing craftmanship has somewhat been an underdeveloped one and therefore the Turkish musical instruments did not able to show a desiref ul pace of impro vement. The point where we have reached in Turkish Music today has also been determinetive for the instrument it self with which the music is performed. So now, we have at hand, an insufficiency of Turkish Musical Instruments. This stems from either a limitation of musical timbre or a shortage of musical instruments or instrument family or groups capable for performing much different keys of musical works. These requirements have been tried out with exo- rigin instruments and at the end, violin and other strings (violin, viola, cello) quitar, drums, clarinet and other electronic instruments have come to the stage unfortunately, of these instruments, violin has been ranked even as the concertmeister in the ensemblies. Now, at this turn, the mather has been so emphasizing its impor tance. - 10 - The societies in the world use culture as a good means of reigning at each other. In formation of culture, fine arts with its dominating power and of these, the leading role of music has always been a target. In other words, when the music of a country let prone to a degeneration process, this one seems to be a very clever way of weakening of the society itself. At this point, us a very first duty, the Turkish artist takes on his shoulder the responsibility of presenting and maintaining our culture and our music. When the history of "kemence" is investigated, on of the instruments of classical Turkish Music, a rather differing and contradicting information appears in the local and foreign sources. The main reason for this is that similar but indeet different instru ments under the same heading as "kemence" is explained. Not having a literal tradition of music in our country, kemence, like other Turkish instruments, has some unclarified points in its history. If you assume the hypothesis that the civilization has spread out of the Middle Asia, is true the instruments transferred to west could be thought as they had experienced a structural change and with their names modified, coming to Anatolia from North or South Black-Sea. In whatsoever way or steps like classical kemence has progressed, its form has been finalized in Turkish Music and its highest level of either manufacturing or performance technique has been attained by the Turkish Artists' work. - 11 - Improvement of Turkish musical insturments has a great importance due to the development of music. Amongst the leading names of our musical history, the attempts by H.S. Are! and Cemil Bey to improve the kemence, are the best evidences in the impor tance of instrument for the development of music itself. The neces sary changes or other modifications to be realized at teh instruments should be compatible with the instrument science and be implemented by the experts of the subject. When manufacturing of kemence and other instruments, a collaboration with perfor mers, composers and manufacturers dictates itself due to inevita ble necessity of scientific study. In manufacturing of kemence, the importance of the wood material appears as one of determining factors in achieving desired sound character either with a good selection of the material or true measuring. With the manufacturing of kemençe's in soprano, alto, tenor and bass tones, a strong and stateful string instruments of family has been gathered so as to convey the wide spanning style of Turkish Music in a best way. I have the great desire for those instruments being included soon in the conservatory training schedules and their performens being grown up. In general, this work may be summarized as a presentation of the calssical "Kemence" by furnishing information on its history, and a scientific examination of and obscure points about this musical instrument particulary with regart to its construction
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
Güzel Sanatlar, Müzik, Kemençe, Müzik aletleri, Tarihsel gelişim, Fine Arts, Music, Kemancha, Musical instruments, Historical development