Kalite güvence sistemleri ve bir konfeksiyon işletmesinde uygulanması

Gülyan, Süleyman
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada önce "kalitenin" ne demek olduğu anlatılmış, kalite ve müşteri memnuniyeti arasındaki ilişki irdelenmiş daha sonra da kalite geliştirmedeki aşamalardan söz edilmiştir. İkinci bölümde; Toplam Kalite Anlayışı tanıtılmış ve Klasik Kalite Anlayışı ile aralarındaki farklar ele alınmış, Türkiye'deki Toplam Kalite çalışmalarına değinilmiştir. Daha sonra "Kalite Güvencesi" ve "Bir kalite sistemi olarak İSO - 9000 Serisi" tanıtılmıştır. Son bölümde ise bir kalite güvence sisteminin; özellikle ülkemizde yeni olmasına rağmen, bir konfeksiyon firmasına uyarlanabilirliği incelenmiş ve bu noktada karşımıza çıkabilecek engeller tüm konfeksiyon sanayisi de gözönüne alınarak irdelenmiştir. Sonuç olarak; bu konuya gerçekten inanan ve gelecekte çok daha iyi hedeflere yönelmiş bir konfeksiyon firmasının kalite güvence sistemini kendi içinde uygulayabilmesinin zor bir durum olmadığı saptanmış ve karşısına çıkabilecek engelleri nasıl aşabileceğine değinilmiştir.
Quality, cost and the fastness are the most three important factors of our days. To be able to survive and to go always forward, we have to be aware of these factors. What is quality ? We can explain quality as "to produce a product which serves to the needs of the customer the best". The most important thing is to please the customer. Therefore; quality, reliability and the delivery are very important. If we produce wrongly, there will occur the 2nd qualities of the products; this means that we've wasted the workmanship for these products for nothing. And now, we can reproduce this product for the cost of producing two products. Because we have to make a profit while doing our jobs, we have to produce correctly in öne time and this product should serve to the needs of the custonaers the best. Quality insurance : Quality insurance includes ali the actions made for getting the best service and the best quality. However this should be planned very well and every process should take place in its system. Total quality control: Total quality control provides us to give the best service to the customers and it reduces the production costs. The most important thing here to take the attention on is to prevent the errors from reaching the customers. Total quality management: This is based on the group work. The aim of TQM is not to make profits for the company, the aim is to guarantee the profit and by means of the procedures to increase the profits. [1] İSO 9000 standards: a) İSO 9001, Quality systems - model for quality assurance in design, development, production, installation and servicing. b) İSO 9002, Quality systems - model for quality assurance in production installation and servicing. c) İSO 9003, Quality systems - model for quality assurance in final inspection and test. vııı in the most comprehensive standard İSO 9001, there are these 20 clauses as follows: 1. Management responsibility. 2. Quality system 3. Contract review 4. Design control 5. Document and date control 6. Purchasing 7. Control of customer - supplied product 8. Product identification and traceability 9. Process control 10. Inspection and testing 11. Control of inspection, measuring and test equipment 12. inspection and test status 13. Control of non-conforming product 14. Corrective and pretentive action 15. Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and delivery 16. Control of quality records 17. Internal quality audits 18. Training 19. Servicing 20. Statistical techniques [2] If the companies having the İSO 9000 quality assurance system gets more and more, this will provide to the continuous development of the quality in ali industries. * Quality certificate: Especially, there should be three documents prepared by the company; * Work instructions * Procedures * Quality Handbook Work instructions : They are the documents showing how to make the ıx work correctly. Each work instruction tells us how to make one step of the procedure. It must be simple and it must be understood by everybody. It determines how, when and by whom to make the work. Procedures : Procedures include the summary of the work. In other words, it determines just the steps of the work, it doesn't explain how to do the work. Quality" handbook : It is a summary book about the company, company's quality policy, organization structure, the summary of the procedures and the actions of the company about its quality system. We can summarize how to get the ISO certificate as follows : The company may employ its quality control manager as the responsible person of getting this certificate. The company should choose one of ISO - 9001, ISO - 9002 and ISO - 9003 certificates. Afterwards the company should prepare the documentation (Quality handbook, procedures and work instructions). These quality control systems are put into application for a certain period of time. The advisors or the company's own employees control the system. If they believe that this system works and will work efficiently, they apply to a company that can give the certificate. The authoritative company first wants the quality handbook and signs a contract with the company. During this period, some controls are also made. If there is not a problem the certificate is given. If there is a problem they give time to the applicant company. After the company corrects its system, it again applies. After a new control, if there is not any problem, the certificate given is for 3 years. In each 6 months, controls are repeated. Quality Assurance for the Apparel Industry : This is something new in our country and it has some difficulties under the standards of our days' apparel industry. Because in our country, the education of the workers and the workers' general education standards are low. Therefore, in the most important parts of production where the errors could be stated, there have to be qualified people. Because the apparel industry needs people and the faults are made by people, to train them is the best way. The training of the employees is very important. Process controls must be done very carefully too. Because, otherwise 2nd quality products will be produced and it will be a loss of time, money and workmanship. convince system. [3] The managerb should trust in the system too. Therefore they have to e the employees to this system and they have to lead them in using this mi MİTHAT Company and Its Working System This thesis has been prepared at MİTHAT Apparel Company. The company was established in 1937. It has the experience and history of 60 years' time in apparel industry of Turkey. MİTHAT company produces 840.000 pieces of garments per year. % 80 of this production is exported as ladies' line and % 20 of this production is exported as men's line. In exportation, MİTHAT company works with several European countries and The U.S.A. The garments which are produced are: for ladies; jackets, trousers, skirts, dresses, coats etc...., for men's; jackets, trousers, coats, etc We can explain the processes taking place in the company as follows: After the order-sheets are sent to the marketing department of the company, the marketing department prepares MİTHAT's own order-forms. Therefore the order is signed by the two parts. After that, with the marketing department the planning department prepares the required - trimmdngs' list for each model by examining the model. Planning department calculates the amount of all trimmings for the total order. These total needs' list is sent to the buying department and this department starts buying the trimmings for the order. When the fabrics, linings etc... come to the factory; the quality of design, colour and weaving specifications' are all controlled. All the control reports are given to the planning department. After the shrinkage tests are applied to each fabric, the fabric gets to the cutting department to be cut. The fusings are stuck to the fabrics. The fused and cut pieces are sent to the sewing department. After the sewing process, the sewn garments get to the finishing and the final control department. The measurement controls and the quality controls are made by the quality controllers. The garments having defects are chosen and sent to be repaired. If these garments still have defects after the repairing processes, they are seen as the 2nd quality products. The 1st quality products are packed according to the packing instructions of the customers and they are delivered. One of the main reasons to want to enter the ISO - 9001 quality - assurance system is to reduce the amount of these 2nd quality products and to prevent the losses because of these garments. All the time and workmanship spent for producing these 2nd quality garments is a big loss and to repair these garments also costs a lot of money and it is a good example for "the cost of the bad quality". By using the time and the workmanship spent to repair the 2nd quality products, we can produce the 1st quality products twice. * The Application of a quality assurance system to a ready - made clothing company : Because the Turkish companies are exporting to the European and the U.S. Market, they have to be very careful in the quality and the standards of the garments must be very good. xi Because the apparel industry is an industry that needs the workers, the workers should be trained vey well. A little error made by the workers may cause a very big problem between the company and the customer. Because the company, in which this thesis has been prepared, has its design & new development sections in it. For this reason, ISO - 9001 standards have been chosen to be achieved in this company. First of all, an international quality control organization company has been hired to manage all these processes until the getting of the ISO - 9001 certificate. This company has started making researches in the history, activities and organization of the ready - made clothing company. Afterwards two big training conferences have been given to the employees of the company by this quality control organization. The conferences were about "What is ISO - 9000 ?" and "Quality Assurance System's documentation training". Nowadays the company is making the preparations to have its "Quality Control Handbook" which is the heart of the work. You will see some investigations made during the preparations of this thesis in the company. They are all about the difficulties of this apparel company in getting the ISO - 9001 certificate. If we take a short look on some of these points : a) Document and date control : In the company the documents are distributed disorganizedly. However, a control system should be stated and the documents should be controlled in, about whether they are going to the relevant places or not. b) Process control : Because the workers are unqualified people and they can't detect the errors during their work, some qualified people should be employed to make the process controls. Otherwise the garments having defects are seen in the shipment time and it is very late. c) Training : In the company, the employees aren't trained before they directly start to work. For this reason, until the employee learns the work, some errors are made. To avoid this problem, the employees should be qualified people and they have to be well-trained before they start to work. As a result, the company should solve the above problems before it enters this work to get the ISO - 9001. Because the apparel industry is a work-intensive industry, there may always be the problems. The best solution against these problems should be continuously control and to train the people about it. If a company really believes in getting a quality assurance system, by getting over the problems it can reach its aim. For this reason, the companies should settle their systems and improve these systems till their best form.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Hazır giyim endüstrisi, Kalite güvence sistemi, Tekstil işletmeleri, Ready made wear industry, Quality assurance system, Textile enterprises