Türkiye'de kentsel sit alanı sorunları ve çözum yolları için bir deneme/Galata örneği

Aksoy, Yasemin
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Tezin konusu, Türkiye'de kentsel sit alanlarında yaşanan sorunları belirlemek ve çözüm yolları oluşturmak; Galata örnek bölgesinde bir çözüm önerisi sunmaktır. Birinci bölümde, yukarıda özetlenen tezin amacı ve yöntemi açıklanmıştır. Tezin çok geneldeki amacı, geçmiş kültürlerin mirasının gelecek kuşaklara aktarılmasındaki yöntem tartışmalarına katkı sağlayabilmektir. İkinci bölümde, kentsel koruma tanımlanmış ve kentsel sit alanları için ölçütler, yöntemler ve yasal durum incelenmiştir. Özellikle dünyada etkisini hızla arttıran kullanıcı katkısı ile yapılan uygulamalar sosyo-ekonomik kriterleri ile sunulmaya çalışılmış, örneklendirilmiştir. Türkiye'den ve dünyadan örneklerin incelendiği bölümde maddeler halinde kentsel sit alanlarında koruma planı uygulanırken yaşanan sorunlar irdelenmiştir. Bu bölümde planlama öncesi, planlama ve uygulama aşamalarında günümüze kadar tartışılmış birçok kavramı, denenmiş birçok olguyu, içlerinden kullanıcı katkısı ile yaşatarak koruma kavram ve olgusunu daha detaylı olmak üzere incelenerek, her türlü alternatif yöntem, planlama tekniği, uygulama aracı gözler önüne serilmeye çalışılmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde, genelden özele bir yaklaşım benimsenmiş ve Galata örneği üzerinde durulmuştur. Arazi tespitlerden, anketlerden çıkan sonuçlar açıklanmıştır. Dördüncü bölüm, verilerin değerlendirilerek karar alma sürecinde kullanılabilecek ölçütlerin oluşturulduğu bölümdür. Sosyo-Ekonomik ve mekan-yapı ile ilgili dokusal ölçütler bu bölümün ana temasıdır. Bu bölümde yapılmak istenen, ikinci bölümde xı kavramsal açıklamasının olgusal örneklerle yapılan korumanın örnek bir alanın analiziyle sentezini oluşturmaktır. Bu sentez ile planlama ve uygulama aşamalarında kullanılabilecek kriterler oluşturulabilecektir. Beşinci bölümde, Galata'nın bu sene yapılacak olan koruma planına örnek oluşturabilecek amaç, hedef ve politikalar beklenmiştir. Altıncı bölüm, genel olarak kentsel sit alanlarında, özel olarak Galata'da yaşanan sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri belirlenmiş; çeşitli bulgular ortaya çıkarılmıştır.
Men has discovered that sustainance by eradication of the values owned will have negative effects on the motivation of the future generations and also that rejecting progress pervasively is not possible. The compound output of these two thesis has been in the form of an integration of the past and the present, in other words, in the form of an adaptation of the past to the present. In this project, the value of historical places in their socio-economic, cultural scope and their utilisation has been discussed together with different views, the resultant concept of this discussion emerging to be "The Urban Conservation". The aim of this research is to contribute to the dispute over the course to be taken in the passing over to the future generations of the past cultural heritages; and to define the methods of application to be used in the conveyance of the physical environment through which this can be achieved. The importance of the continuity of the town in time, its lively sustainance and its combination with its dwellers has been highlighted within this context. İn this context the conceptual and methodical elements of the Urban Conservation will be discussed and development of criteria regarding the solutions will be endevoured. The study, while demonstrating national and international techniques in process and different views, will be aiming at the formation of a basis for tangible solutions. Among its main targets are the development of judiciary, technical and financial planning models in concordance with the country conditions for an area reformation that will contribute to the country's socio-economic development while the work of transmitting the local and universal values to the future İs in progress; and the introduction of the related xm international developments and procedures with their corresponding illustrations. Within this frame of the case and the hypothesis, we feel the urge to make reference to some of the preliminary assumptions now, although they will be analysed thoroughly in the project. Urban Conservation, will cumulate its accessability as long as as it transforms its "conservative" and stagnant structure into that of integrating with development. The method for this is active conservation. The concept of Conservation and Development planning has thus been initiated. In the first part general definitions will be given on urban conservation, and then conceptual scanning will be made. These concepts which reflect the identity of conservation regarding the procedure will be analysed under the light of the economic, judiciary and socio-cultural bottlenecks seen during the conveyance from the principle to actualisation. After these analysis, the study on the examples in the world and in our country will be made and the relevant criteria formulated will constitute the end of Part One. Part Two is an approach to the single from the general defined in Part One; regarding the urban site conservation. A thorough study on Galata announced as an Urban Site Area is the main topic of this partin Part Three, under the light of the data presented up till now, a sample study to the resolutions that need to be taken in the conservation plan of the region which is going to be established in this present year will be made and the the main purpose, aim, policies and strategies of the plan will be attempted to be defined. This will also be an evaluation of the project until this stage. Part Four is a synthesis of the analysis made in the first two parts. In this sample of a synthesis aptitude to the already described relations will be checked; apart from the end results, suggestions on the methods to be used will be put forward. Part Five is a scanning on the criteria and measures that can be utilised in the maintenance of the resolutions developed in Part Four. At this point of the thesis regarding a study on Galata urban site area planning, the outstanding basis of conservation, its criteria and measures will be defined. A potential model to be established for application has to be formulated according to those standards. xiv Motivation of The People Conservation in its real meaning is possible with the education of the people of the region to be protected specifically and all people generally. Whatever the legal measures or the penalties, conservation cannot be attained if people do not protect their environment. Education starting from early ages is possible by an appreciation of the environment, development of the concept of its protection and its value. The local press must be involved in this process, must shape up the public opinion and the participation and support of the people must be achieved. The historical environment must be protected from being a means to make money vulnerable to speculations in the same line. The population of Galata has not attained the high level of conscientousness of conservation yet. The intellectuals and a higher-than-average education standard forms the convenient conditions. Exposing the value of the region through the Istanbul Press, creating publicity by putting up of organisations like Galata Şenliği, the third of which is being put on this year and conferences attended by the dwellers may help the formation of environmental conscientousness. This alone is fer from being adequate but is very important from the point of participation and support of the subjects. This process of getting involved must be handled as an era. Finance and Economical Benefits Although financial aid and allocation of funds has been secured by law, in practise the real value of funds is very low. Those historical buildings, the protection of which have been left to the individual efforts of the people have entered a period of fast deterioration and decay. The efforts of the civil organisations are restricted only to the big cities. It is necessary for the civil organisations to take the leadership, to spread over the whole country and to encourage the dwellers.Turning the concept of conservation to practise, understanding its economical importance depends on the realisation of its economic benefits beside its social benefits. After all, one of the xv prevailing principles of our time is that anything good for the individual and the society cannot be abolished. One of the most crucial aspects of historical texture is their possession of a stock of buildings that awaits to be valued. It is much cheaper to renovate a historical building in bad condition than to build a new one. (TOKİ, 1993). On the other hand, the management of this building stock by professionals can be procured by the generation of different functions. These direct benefits, will increase accordingly by the external benefits that will be created in time by the improvement in the environment. Turning back to Galata, we can see that the procurement of economic and external benefits is by no means difficult. It is waiting for the initial investments by its favourable location between the Karaköy-Eminönü-Beyoğlu centers which overtake a variety of functions. The building stock which can be rented or bought for very cheap amounts will increase in value. There is need for initial investors. Considering its possessions in Galata one has good reason to believe this investor to be the state. The Importance of Local Administrations In the development of contemporary life and society, The local administrations must define policies that lead to the adaptation of the citizens to urban relations and novelties, thus depriving the individual of his loneliness and limited surrounding. For this purpose they must be organised so as to condense the relation of the individual by his town enabling his utmost utilisation of the services and the activities. For each new plan the municipalities must cooperate with the related institutions and organisations, and an independent planning unit must be founded in this respect. Faculty members of Universities can be contacted in relation to the various related issues. The approval of city plans prior to discussion in the municipal commitee, by a jury of esthetics formed by a majority of the citizens established in the Administration will be beneficiary in procuring participation. The presence of experts in these groups will bring about immediate solutions to problems on the same site. xvi Local administrations must be assigned and authorised in the preservation of cultural heritage. Conservation,that is referred to shortly as one of the duties in the Law of Municipalities, No.3030, must take its place in the law by recognition in a seperate article. The control of the local administrations, who will have overtaken the responsibilities along with the authorities, will be made by the Ministry of Culture, conservation organisations, civil organisations and the citizens thus preventing abuses. In Galata, it is obvious there exist a lot of responsibilities that the municipal administration can overtake. An independent planning unit officially connected to the administration and organically related to the Ministry of Culture and the related conservation group, with its own working place, must be founded. Participation of the educated people of Galata and the STK's must be maintained. The municipality, by restoring or converting one of its own possessions and moving in some of its departments, can be one of the first expected initiators. The taking over of controlling function by the planning unit, supplying technical feedback to the users and undertakers at the stage of procurement will be a fine example. Organisation The organisation models referred to under the Legal Action caption must be developed or the western style must be adopted.The continuous and active participation of the dwellers to the planning and application stages can be maintained only at an organisational level. The civil organisations that represent the organised society must lead this process. Individual participation of citizens may bring about inconveniences as has already been proved. İn.Galata any organisational model formed by the dwellers (cooperatives, associations etc) will be beneficial at all stages. Being organised will be able to force the municipality, at the same time providing the control of those elected by the voters, creating a pressure group. Within the framework of such organising, the path to xvu conscientousness will be covered in much a shorter time and financial shortcommings will find more collective solutions. Legal Action Law No. 2863 in force has, essentially, quite a wide scope. In our Laws regarding conservation, both planning and practise tools and measures have been maintained. However, the problem in our country is not the legal gap, but the inactivation of the existing laws. The fund that was aimed to initiate the dweller participation and subsequent contribution which are the most important aspects of conservation, can not be activated. Perhaps, the most important single defect in the law is related to the organisation models of dweller participation. These models, the examples of which are very frequent in the western world, must be adjusted to the conditions in our country and legalised. Planning The planning concept has been defined under the heading of the Importance of The Local Municipalities. The most important issue under this concept is the minimisation of the presumed harm of conservation conceptually and economically by the creation of urban economical benefits. In a period starting from the general aims and policies, the economical values must be surveyed down till the parcel unit level. Another very crucial factor from the point of planning is the population living in the social atmosphere and area. Measures enabling the continuity of this population can be developed in relation to the economical benefits. However, for Galata, it can be stated that this is not a must. The present dwellers seem to be temporary and not planning owning the area. The plan must manifest the limits of interference to our cultural heritage and historical buildings. xvm Contemporary needs and Environment Men will try to adapt to the changing life conditions and needs as they arise. Accordingly, the concept of conservation must be developed as to meet the requirements. All equipment related to heating, lighting, and plumbing must be suitably included in the conservation plan. Lighting of the roads, fire precautions must have their contemporary solutions. Architectural and cityplanning requirements must be met with the least interference. With its present condition, Galata can not meet modern needs. When the single buildings are considered, we see that they do not meet the standards of housing, and are not fit for the activity as offices. There is need for improvement measures together with the supply of facilities. The economical activities of the offices must be selected in line with their structures. The plan must not be altered according to the type of economic indulgence but, on the contrary, the economic indulgence must be determined according to the plan of the building. From the environmental point of view, Galata, which has the outlook of a devastated area, must be renewed with urban and landscape planning, using a newly prepared urban planning directory which will have been readily made. The building of prestigious elements will accelerate this period. The prevailing conservation concept must be one that tries not to stabilise its living environment in the past, but one that protects the elements of the past, adding new elements to those thus enriching and developing the environment of the present.
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
kentsel koruma alanları, İstanbul-galata, urban conservation areas, Istanbul-galata