Türkiye'de kalite çemberleri ve bir uygulama

Aşçıoğlu, Derya
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada "Kalite Çemberleri" konusu ele alınmaktadır. Kalite çemberlerinin örgüt yapısı ile ilişkileri, kalite çemberleri organizasyonu, işleyişi ve uygulamada kullanılan teknikler konusun¬ da bilgi verilerek Türkiye'de yapılan bir kalite çemberi uygulaması incelenmekte ve karşılaşılan sorunları belirtilerek bazı çözüm önerileri sunulmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, kalite ve kalitesizlik kavramları incelenerek toplam kalite kontrol felsefesinin anlam ve önemi konusunda bilgi verilmekte ve diğer genel hazırlık bilgileri sunulmaktadır. İkinci bölümde, kalite çemberlerinin tanımı, amaç ve yararları, faaliyet alanları, tarihçesi ve Japonya'da gelişmesinin nedenleri açıklanmaktadır. Üçüncü bölümde, organizasyon yapıları ve çeşitli görüşlerin tarihsel gelişimine yer verilerek grup yaklaşımı ve kalite çemberleri ilişkisi belirtilmektedir. Dördüncü bolüm kalite çemberlerinin organizasyon yapısı ve tamamlayıcı unsurları konusundaki genel bilgileri içermektedir. Kalite çemberlerinin işleyiş biçimi ve uygulama aşamalarının açıklandığı beşinci bölümde, aynı zamanda kalite çemberlerinin işleyişi sırasında kullanılan başlıca teknikler hakkında- da genel bilgiler verilmektedir. Altıncı bölümde; bir şirketler topluluğunda kalite çemberlerinin uygulama safhaları anlatılmakta ve bir kalite çemberi uygu¬ laması örnek olarak incelenmektedir. Son bölümde ise Türkiye'de kalite çemberleri uygulamalarında karşılaşılan sorunlar belirtilerek bazı çözüm önerileri sunulmaktadır.
Af ter the industry rev:olutian, technology impraved uith giant steps and this resulted the unrld as a big market in a short periad. The intense challenge in this big market led the manufac- turers to produce cheaper and better gaads. in chapter öne, the quality cost concept is introduced and infarmation given about the meaning and importance of tatal quality contral philasaphy. The impartance af quality cantral in Industrial Engineering is also explained in this chapter. Quality is not the "absolute best", as knnmnand tried ta be defined by many people. in general quality can be described as "the level af apprapriateness ta the aim". The aim here is ". ' determined by the need and capability of payment af the custamer. Herce ta examine the quality af a product ar service the fallaming items shauld be cansidered : I) the aim of use II) price The develapment pracess af the quality concept led the experts ta ujork an pnar quality cancept. This cancept covers ali the praperties that cansumers are not satisfied from the product ar service. These are the defects, the incompatibilities, unconsidered faults and missing items, insufficient adaptatians, the shart life af the praduct and the incidents inside the campany. Ali the inc;ijJB~ıts impose extra casts ta the price af the praduct ar service. Therefare by calculating the poar quality casts the source af the problems can be determined. Ulhen UJB encounter uith the problem-salutian phase, the main aim shauld be the quality. The management, praduction phases, staff, labaur, marketing and the praduct itself shauld be realized in the best uıay passible fram beginning ta end. Nam ue can define the tatal quality cantral as fnlaus: 0-uality cnntral is to develap, design, praduce and supply a quality praduct and service uhich is most Econnmical, most useful and almaya setisfactary ta the cansumer The participatian af ali staff members and the salutian af the prablems gradually are the essence items af this dEfinitian. CJuality circles is öne af the mEthads ta achieve the tatal quality cantral philasaphy. in the secand chapter, the definition of quality circles, their aims and advantages, the subjects uıhere they are applied, their histary, the reasans uhy they are bnrn and develaped in Japan and their develapment in the uarld and particularly Turkey, are given. ix A quality circle is a amali grnup af generally 8-1D volunteers uham markin similar pasitiana and gather periadically. This graup determines the prablema that they face in their paaitinns, examine them and solve. The main aim af the quality cit-cles is tp dE.creasE the naat, mske enanamy and ta increaae the quality and the profit range. Apart fram these the fallauing are the resulta af the quality cirnles. - ta farce the member ta think abaut hia jab and the events he ericauntera every day, - ta understand the prnblems, - ta give research capability,. - ta pravide mental and emotianal satiafactian, - ta develap the cnmmunicatian inside the campany, - ta increase the şelf confidence of the member. Quality circles can mark an ali the activities af the unrkers except the subjects like salaries, callective cantracts, personal events and bonus system. in 1961, Japanese Unian af Scientists and Engineers (3USE) arganized a series af meetings in investigative manneı:. Their aim UIEE ta develap a methad that the uıorkers cantribute ta the profit af the campany. Sa that uıas the beginning af the first applicatian af quality circles in Japans ister these methads spread över the uorld» After 30 years quality circles stili maintain their effecti- veneas. Althaugh it is an internatianal management and arganizatian technique, quallty cîrclea hae became mare succesaful in Japan. Dr. Kaaru lahikama, named as the father nf quality circlea, expressed the reasan af thia fact according ta the difference af sacial and cultural background af every natinn. üJhen the uarld map af quality circlea, prepare.d by 3LJSE in 1981, is examined, it is passible ta see that Sauth Harea, Hong Hang, Taiujan and Singapore come after Japan in guality circles develapment. Then USA and France take their place in the list. Quality circles and tatal -quality cantrol cancepts are developing in the other cauntriea of Eurnpe. in the recent yeara, the impartance af this aubject is understaad and the number af applicatians are increasing. in chapter three, histarical develapment af arganizatian structures and different ideas are explained and the relatian betueen group and guality circles is examinEd. in the same chapter, Haurthnrne studies are discuased. it is expressed that campanies shauld realize the tschnical arganizatian and sacial arganizatian uıhich is mare impartant than the farmer. This can anly be dane in graup studies. x Chapter faur, covers general infarmatian about the arga¬ nizatian structure af quality circles and the camplementâry elements of it. The organization af quality circles cansist af executive cammittee, guide, leader and circle members, Executive cammittee is the most important and central element af the quality circles1 arganizatian. The cammittee has the autharity af taking decision af every kind and policy establishing. Executive cammittee gene- rally cansists af 5-12 members. Main duties are: explaining the aims nf quality circles, determining the absent articles in quality circles regulatians, develaping an applicatian plan, selectian af the guide and leader, determining the necessary training subjects, explaining the actiuities of quality circles, ete. Euide is the persan uha is respansible far the coardinatian and management af quality circles activities in an arganizatian. Euide is alsa respansible fram the training of circle leaders and he suppcrts the leader in the training af members. Guide establis- hes the link betuıeen the circles and departments in the rest af the arganizatian. He uıarks in clase cantact uith the executive committee. Euide shculd be chasen after the decisian af applicatian af quality circles. His main duties are: providing the suppart af management, realizing the first planning studies, infarming peaple in the arganizatian abaut the applicatian, recarding the successes af circles, jaining the quality circles meetings, super- vising, training the leaders af circles, assisting the circle in problem salutian and presentatian ta' management phases. Circle leaders; even thaugh many circles hav/e ane guide, every circle has only öne leader. Circle leader has an impartant role in the accamplishmEnt af circle activities. Leader is in charge af teaching quality circle techniques ta the circle members and the activities af circles alane. If the first directar is the leader in the beginning, the success chance increases. Leader, guides the circle actives and pravides the necessary communicatian uith the management by the meeting records, activity reparts and presentatians ta the management. Leader shauld pravide the participatian af members ta the meetings as much as passible. Leader alsa uarks far the active participatian af members by develaping neuj ideas, using brain storm ar a like methads and asking questions ta silent members. Training af quality circle leaders is not anly teaching quality circle techniques. Thearetical knauıledge shauld be camplemented uith practical examples and the leader shauld knauj hau ta direct the circle members. xi. Quality cirnles is related uıith the human factor of a campany uıhich is the mast ualuable element of it. Therefore the mast impartant element of quality circles is "circle members". The first conditian af succesB ıs ta make use of the brain pauer af the group unlan is farmed by the valunteer emplDyees una uork in similar tasks. TD abtain the success: circle members shauld have sufficient training abaut quality circles. Members should have knauledge abaut the problem that the circle aim ta salve. The necessary qualifications af the members are: - listening cther ideas uıhen uarking uith other peaple. - hauing tnlerance of against critics, - hauing the responsibility feeling ta accamplish the task. Becuse af the abave facts, befare deciding an the applicatian af quality circles, it is necessary ta cansider the characteristics and background af the uarkers. Intensive and cantinuaus trainning af uarkers is essential. in campanies, quality circles need same ather elements in assistant and camplementary fram. They are: - Expert Consultants - Notice Baards - Training Activities - Quality Circles Regulation - Quality Circles Cauncils - Inter-circle Relatians - Neujspapers and Magazines - Pilot circles - Budgets in chapter five, the operatian and methodalogy of quality circles are explained. in additian, general informatian abaut the techniques used in the aperatian af quality circles is given. CJuality circles usually g ather faur times in the month, önce in a ueek far an haur. Meetings are usually organized in uıorking hours. Contrarily, in some systems, meetings can be made after uarking hours. in this case, extra uork principle is. applied far the participants. The selectian af the subjects uhich the circle uill uark on, directly depends 'on the udshes of members. in subject selectian, leader and guide supervise the circle according ta the mernber's uishes. The main operation of quality circles is directed ta finding aut the reasans af defects, finding salutians ta defects and applying these salutians, rather than correcting the results of xii defects. lıihen doing the above tasks, circles collect ali elements, infnrmation, data, cansolidate them and derive solutions fram them. Quality circles keep a notebook uhich cauers ali impartant elements of the circle activities. The methodalogy af quality circles includes 7 phases. 1) Determining the problems and selectinn af the main problem 2) Solytion phoae of the problem (data callecting) and selectian of solutian praposals 3) Presentation of aolution propasals to management k") Inspection of solution proposals by management 5) Application of solutian prapasals 6) Examining af application reaults 7) Standardization of application Some of the problem solving and prenaution techniques used by quality circles, especially prepared far them. Some athers are the eexisting techniques in psychalogy, statistics, mathematics and similar sciences. These problem solving techniques uaed in quality circles, are simple, pleasent ta USE and address people in every level. Even uıarkers uıho did not graduated fram primary school could use these techniques after some initial training. The faregoing techniques are - Brain storm - Data callecting techniques and graphics - Parsto Analysis - Reason-Result Analysis - Benefit-Cost Analyais, ete. in chapter six, the application phases of quality circles in a group af companies are explained and a quality circle applica¬ tion specificially is examined. in this group of companies according ta the "reducing costs project" neuı methads uas being saught and initial ideas for the application of guality circles have been discussed. it is then decided' ta apply the quality circles system ta the group uith the suppart of the campany uhich is the representative of "Quality Circle Institute" in Turkey. "Quality Circle Institute" is an expert company in USA, in this field. The first phase af the applicatian uas to form an executive committee and to prepare an action plan. The trainings of guides and leaders are done in the direction af actian plan, then it is decided ta form the first circle. A campany.from the group, and a pilot department from the company uas chasen respectively^ The uarkers in this department receiued letters fram general manager. Supporting them ta participate in the circle. After the zero meeting, ujhich general infarmatian abaut circles uas giuen, B xiii quality circle has formed from volunteer workers. Then others followed it respectively. Application: Gne of the quality circles formed in the group of companies has been chosen as an application. To carry out all the studies in a systematic way an operation plan has been prepared. Circle members have been taught the "Brain Storm" technique and a name for the circle was found according to this technique. The name was chosen as "leaders of Adornments" (Tezyinatın Önder leri). By using the Brain Storm technique again, 1DB problems were determined. After examining all problems, the main problem was decided as "The efficiency Irr.ss from the length of production exchange time on Eldred Machines". As the first phase, existing state of the problem was determined and data collecting groups were formed using the collected data, control tables and paretD schemes were prepared and the reason was found Dut as "Time Loss in the preparation of molds". Afterwards the reason-result analysis has been finished and the reasons for the time loss in the preparation of molds began to be sought. As a result" unsfficiency of the assistant equipment" has appeared and the minimum amount was determined. To gain the 82 minute bold prepration time, the benefit-cost analyses of the proposed solutions has been done and the net benefit has been calculated as 13.D17.Q0D TL/year. All the studies and solution proposals has been explained in the "presentation to management" meeting by the leader and circle members. Just after being examined by the management, the proposal has been realized. In the last chapter, the problems encountered in the application Df quality circles in Turkey has been explained and some solution proposals has been given. The social, economical and technical developments provided by the use Df quality circles gave birth to some problems. Those problems can be grouped under the following titles; xiv - Organizational features - Organization structure - Business confidence and high emplayment rate - Economical satisfaction - Training - Expertise about the company - Management features - Behaviour of top level management - Behaviour of middle and low level management - Inadequate presentation of activities - The effectiveness of executive committee - Behaviour of guide - Behaviour of leader - Behaviour of circle members - Behaviour of unions - The economical position of the country and company These problems usually rise from incidents in the organization structure and from the wrong behaviours of the people participated in quality circles organization. To prevent the problems encountered in quality circles everybody in the organization should have the quality control conscious. After having this conscious set, as far as everybody does his/her duty, there are no reasons against the success of quality circles, in any company of the world.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1992
Anahtar kelimeler
Endüstri ve Endüstri Mühendisliği, Kalite çemberleri, Türkiye, Industrial and Industrial Engineering, Quality circles, Turkey