Kömür Ticaretinde Kalite Belirlenmesi

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Tarih
2014-05-23
Yazarlar
Yazıcıoğlu, Asım
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Ülkemizde kömür ithalatı, 1970’li yıllarda özellikle sanayinin ihtiyacı nedeniyle başlamıştır. İlk defa ev yakıtı olarak kömür ithalatı ise 1980 yılı başlarında Zonguldak’tan yeterli kömürün gelememesi nedeniyle yapılmıştır. Mozambik’ten İstanbul’a getirilen kömür, şehrin bir miktar ihtiyacını karşılamıştır. Kömürlerin gittikçe artan sanayi ve ev yakıtı olarak kullanım ihtiyacı nedeniyle de 1990 yıllarında ithalatının artmaya başladığı görülmektedir. Özellikle Sovyet Bloku, diğer deyişle eski Demir Perde ülkelerinden yüksek kalorili ve düşük kükürtlü parça kömürler ithal edilerek ülkemizdeki hava kirliğinin önlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Kömür ticaretinin hızla gelişmesine karşın, kalite belirlemesinde önemli rol oynayan “standartlara göre numune alma” konusunun taşıdığı önemin anlaşılması epeyce zaman almıştır. SGS’ deki çalışmalar ve diğer gözetme firmalarının da daha sonra katılımı ve desteği ile önce standartlar elde edilmiş ve ardından yurt dışında çalışma ve teknik eğitimlerle bu konu öğrenilmiş ve bilahare geliştirilmiştir. Yine bu çalışmada numunenin nasıl alınması gerektiği ve hazırlanması hususlarındaki standartların uygulanması ile ilgili ayrıntılı bilgiler sunulmuştur. Kömürlerin yurdumuza ithalinde karşılaşılabilecek kalite, ebat ve miktar problemlerinde nasıl hareket edilmesi gerektiği anlatılmıştır. Ayrıca ithalatta problemlerle karşılaşıldığında, gözetme firmalarının talimatlandırılarak bu tespitlerin sağlıklı ve isabetli bir şekilde yapılması hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. Bu nedenle kömürden numune alma ve hazırlamanın yöntemleri ile ilgili bilgiler örneklerle beraber verilmiştir. Böylelikle kömür ticareti yapan/yapacak firmaların ithalat kontrollerinde bağımsız denetimcilerin çalışmalarını makul bir şekilde takip etmeleri de sağlanmak istenmiştir. Bu şekilde kömür ticaretiyle uğraşan firmaların standartlara uygun numune alım ve hazırlama ile doğru kalite teşhis ve tespitini kolaylıkla yapmaları amaçlanmıştır. Son yıllarda ithal edilen kömürlerin tek ocak ürünü olmaması ve ihracatçıların gerek sanayi gerekse ev yakıtı parça kömürlerde karışık ocak kömürlerini gemilere yüklemesi nedeniyle kömürden numune alımı ve hazırlanması konusu gayet önem kazanmıştır. Mağdur duruma düşen ithalatçıların bilimsel tespitlerle kömürdeki kalite problemlerini ortaya çıkarması için bağımsız uluslararası gözetim firmalarından ne şekilde yararlanacağı hakkında bilgiler de çalışma içerisinde yer almaktadır. Bununla beraber kömürlerin Türkiye’ye ithalinde Çevre ve Şehircilik Bakanlığı’nın en son uygulanmakta olan genelgesine göre yapılacak işlemler ve ithal edilecek kömürlerde aranacak özelliklerden bahsedilmiştir. Sonuç olarak; kömür ticaretinde, kömürün yükleme ve tahliye limanlarında ne gibi hususlara dikkat edilmesi gerektiği, oluşabilecek problemlerin ne şekilde çözümleneceği yönünde yol gösterici bir çalışma hazırlanması amaçlanmıştır.
Coal import in Turkey began in the 1970s especially due to the requirement of the industry. Coal was first imported as residential fuel in the early 1980s due to failure of Zonguldak to provide sufficient coal. Coal imported from Mozambique to Istanbul partially met the need of the city. It is seen that the coal importation increased in the 1990s to meet increasing demand for use of coal as industrial and residential fuel. Aimed at preventing air pollution, especially, high-calorie and low sulphurous coal was imported from the Soviet Block, also known as the Iron Curtain, countries. In spite of the rapid growth in coal trade, it took time to understand the importance of ‘sampling in accordance with the standards’, which plays a crucial role in quality control. First, the standards are obtained, and then this subject is learned by studies and trainings abroad with my personal efforts and then participation of other supervision firms. Besides the quality determination of the coal, it has been aimed to give short information about the physical and chemical parameters of the coal. Also important role of the inspection companies mentioned for coal trade. It is important to inform coal traders in order to be sure about the quality of coal. Also information has been provided for coal production and coal trade in World and Turkey. Sampling at the mine site, at stock and during discharge from the vessel or from the wagon/truck is explained in detail. Coal which imported for home heating has named regarding their size therefore such given names (i.e nut coal, orange coal etc.) and explained to coal trader that today coal purchase is effected with those names. In addition to those information some terms which are used for coal has been given. Also in this study, brief information is provided on coal formation and its types, and coal sampling locations and sampling methods are explained. This study also offers detailed information on complete definition of sample and standard practices of sampling and preparation. Coal imported for industry has even more importance and therefore sampling and sample preaparation is critical for quality determination. Industrial coal transactions have huge quantities and is loaded generally by mixing different quality of coal. Therefore sampling must occure for each sub-lot and sample preparation must be effected for each lot separately in order to define exact quality of product. Therefore lot system sampling is explained according to the international standard in this study. Coal for home heating generally imported in larger sizes has also another importance due to Turkish market consumption. Mostly home heating coal has big size unable to be be sampled with the recommended standard scoop. Due to their size, special iron frame is used for sampling of big size coal and sampling with this frame is also explained in the study. The international sampling standard was prepared for size below 75 mm .However home heating coal contains coal generally 300 mm in size which can not be sampled with standard scoop. This study also mentions that the nominated coal sampler must be experienced in order to visually determine the percentage of coal which is lower than 75 mm and bigger than 75 mm in size, during sampling operation. This will help the sampler to mix those fraction of coal sampled by frame, according to their fraction. Furthermore, information is provided on the courses of actions to be conducted for the problems related to quality, size, and amount, which may be encountered during coal importation, and on how to instruct supervision firms for sound and accurate controls when encountered with such issues. For this purpose, correct sampling methods are specified with conducted examples. Thus, it is aimed to inform the coal trading companies to follow works of independent inspectors during import controls in an informed manner. Most of all, it is aimed to have the coal trading companies to sample and prepare samples in accordance with the standards and to make accurate quality controls. Recently coal sampling and preparing samples have become more important owing to the fact that imported coal is not from a single colliery and that exporters ship mixed coals from different collieries either for industrial fuel or residential lump coal. Also in this study detailed information is provided on sample preparation including place, apparatus and some physical test regarding screening for size determination, HGI,and moisture test. This study also includes information on how coal importers suffer from such issues may benefit from independent international supervision firms in order to detect quality issues for coal with correct evaluations. Also, procedures and required specification for coal to be imported are mentioned pursuant to the recent applicable memorandum of the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning. In this study information is provided to the coal purchasers on actions to take when low quality coal is received. The calorific value is most important factor generally considered for coal imported for industrial use. Fines and foreign matters such as shist and stones, in imported coal for home heating are not accepted. Therefore the study explains the role of inspection companies for claiming such items to supplier. In addition to the quality, safety transportation and stocking of the coal and associated burning risk are explained in details. Some information has given about the oxidation and self combustion of coal .The factors which are the reason of self combustion are mentioned in details in order to take necessary precautions. Also it has been mentioned how it can be detected in early stages. As a case study, one burning of the coal case in the vessel holds during transportation is examined. Also standards which declared in the IMO regulation for the vessel which is carried coal are mentioned in details. On the other hand it has been mentioned how coal must be stocked in order to prevent burning. It also emphaises the stock height for each size of the coal types mentioned. In the light of above explanation it is remarked again that inspection company and inspectors must have experiment for sampling and sample preparation of coal for determination of quality in coal trading. In conclusion, it is aimed to be a guiding study for issues to be taken into consideration in the port of loading and port of discharge, and for solution of problems, which may arise during coal trade.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
Anahtar kelimeler
Kömür, numune alma, kalite, ticaret, Coal, sampling, quality, trading
Alıntı