Bilimkurgu Filmlerinin Mimari Açıdan Gelecekle İlgili Fikirlerin Oluşmasına Katkısı

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Tarih
2013-07-19
Yazarlar
Topuz, Özlem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Mimarlık insanlığın var oluşuyla ortaya çıkmış ve insan için hizmet etmiş bir sanat dalıdır. Kökleri bu geçmişle çok sağlam olan mimarlık bireyin, toplumun gelişmesi, değişmesiyle beraber değişmiş ve gelişmiştir. Kendini yenilemiş ve zamana ayak uydurmuştur. Verdiği ürünlerin kalıcı olmasıyla insanlık için bir tarihi içerir. Geçmişten gelen mimari örnekler, bugüne ait olmasalar da bugün içindeki yerleriyle geçmiş arasındaki bağı kurar niteliktedir. Zamansal düzlemler içindeki bağlayıcı özelliğiyle mimarlık, geçmiş bugün ve gelecek ilişkisini zihinlerde oluşturur ve canlandırarak topluma armağan eder. Bu kadar etkili bir sanat türünün diğer sanat dallarıyla olan ilişkisi kaçınılmazdır. Zaman zaman mimarlığın bu türleri etkilediği, zaman zaman da farklı türlerin mimarlığı etkilediği bir ortam varoluşları kadar eskidir. Gelişen dünya, küreselleşen ortamda bu etkileşim kaçınılmazdır. Müzikle, resimle, edebiyatla olan etkileşimlerin yanı sıra mimarlığın sinema sanatıyla olan etkileşimi gelişen teknoloji ve bilgisayar çağında bir kademe daha ileride durmaktadır. Sinemanın sunduğu sınırsız hayal gücü ve görsellik, mimarlığın her zaman ihtiyacı olan bir ortama olanak verir. Mimarinin esas meselesi olan mekân üzerine getirdiği farklı bakış açıları, değişik kullanımlarla mekân için denemeler yapar. Bu etkileşim tek taraflı bir ilişki sonucunda oluşmaz. Mimarlık sinemadan alacaklarını, sinemanın mekân kullanımları, mekân üretimleri sonucunda elde edilen verilerden alır. İlişki için ilk adımı sinema atar. Sinema senaryosunu anlatmak ve yansıtmak için zamana ve mekâna ihtiyaç duyar. Sinemada mekân filmin her sahnesinde belirir. Aslında kameranın kadrajı bile bir mekânı tanımlar. Bu kavramsal yaklaşımın yanında alenen filmde beliren mekânlar kendi başlarına bile konuyu anlatmak için yeterlidir. Mekân kavramının film için bir diğer önemi de zaman kavramının oluşturulmasında da etkin rol almasıdır. Bu iki kavram iç içe geçmiş bir durum sergiler. Bazen mekânlar, zaman kavramını oluştururken bazen, zaman mekânları etkiler. Zamanın mekânları etkilemesi genellikle geleceği yansıtan filmlerde yani bilimkurgu türü filmlerde karşımıza çıkar. Bilimkurgu türleri mimarlık için, içerdikleri bilimsel bilgi ve yaptıkları öngörülerle önceden hazırlanmış birer çalışmadır. Bu özelliğiyle mimarinin gelişiminde önemli yer tutarlar. Mekân kullanımları var olan mekân kullanımları, kurgusal mekânlarıyla karşımıza çıkarlar. Var olan mekânlar için nasıl bir evrim süreci geçirecekleri, varlıklarını sürdürüp sürdüremeyecekleri konusunda bilgiler içerirken, yeni ürettiği mekânlarla da meydana gelecek değişikliklerin yönünü çizer. Oluşturduğu ve içine çeken bu gerçekçi ortamla bize geleceğimiz ile ilgili düşünme fırsatı sunar. Her gün içinden geçtiğimiz sokakları gelecek dünyası olarak görmek, hissetmek, daha önce karşılaşmadığımız türden mekânların içerisinde yer alabilmek büyük bir şanstır. Bu şanslı durum içerisinde aynı bina açıklıkları, aynı cepheler, aynı malzemeler daha cesur boyut ve dillerle karşımıza çıkar. İç mekânlardaki yaşanmışlık ve birikmişlikten kaynaklı oluşan tarzlar hemen dikkati çeker. Tez bu anlamda geleceği yansıtan bilimkurgu filmlerinin mekânlara, kentlere dair verdiği referanslarla nasıl bir gelecek kurguladığını, bunu yaparken nasıl davrandığını, gelecek denen olgunun aslında nasıl bir durum yaratılarak oluşturulduğunu ortaya koymaya çalışmaktadır. Kullanılan gerçek mekânların, kentlerin filmdeki izleriyle günümüzdekiler arasındaki ilişkilerinin tespiti merak edilen konuya dair önemli bulgulara ulaştırır.
Architecture is an art that appeared at the same time of humanity and since than have served for people. With this stong past roots, architecture have changed and evolved with the change and development of the individual and society. This art renewed itself and kept pace with the time. The persistent of architectural products contains a history for human being. Examples of architecture from the past, since they are not of the sites of today, establishes the link between the past and today. Past, present and future relationship have been created in the minds and stimulated, presented to the public as a gift with its feature, binding in temporal planes. It is inevitable that an effective relationship with other art branches. From time to time architecture influenced different species, at times, these types influenced architecture, is as old as the existence of in an environment. This interaction is inevitable in the developing world and globalized environment. As well as interactions with music, painting, literature, the interaction between the art of cinema and architecture is one step ahead of the technology and the computer age stands. Cinema’s limitless imagination and visualization allows the environment that architecture is always in need of. It is related with offers that art of cinema gives. It brought different perspectives on space base matter of architecture, and for space experiments with different uses. This interaction is not caused by a one-way relationship. Architecture receives the data obtained from cinema, as a result of production of space and space usage of cinema. On the other side cinema use the products of architecture, the space. With space usage cinema make itself more real and connect the relation with time. Cinema’s set space gives lot chance to create imaginative places. One place can be shown with in a lot of kind of variable options. It can be seen same place either a peaceful or a chaotic place in different or same movie.. The first step for the relationship throws cinema. Movie needs the time and space to tell and to reflect script. Space appears in every scene of the film in cinema. In fact, even if the camera s frame defines a space. Besides, this conceptual approach are even enough to tell on its own that appears in the film like a avowedly spaces. The importance of the notion of space for the film is that it takes an active role in the creation of the concept of time. It exhibits a situation where the two concepts are intertwined. Sometimes spaces, creating the concept of time, sometimes affects the time venues. The influence of time on space often is seen in the science fiction films that reflects the future. Film type science fiction contain a study of scientific knowledge and their forecasts prepared in advance for architecture. With this feature, they hold a significant place in the development of architecture. Use of space occurs as use of existing space and fictional locales. Science fiction contains information about the evolutionary process for existing spaces and changes that will occur in the direction of a new product draws spaces. Constituted and immersive realistic environment offers the opportunity to think about the future. It is a great chance to take part in the previously encountered spaces that see and feel the streets we passed through every day as the world of the future. In this fortunate situation the same building openings, the same fronts, the same materials, sizes and languages similar from past appears bolder. Interior spaces styles as a result of the heritage and lives in attracts attention immediately. In this sense, thesis works to demonstrate the creation of the films that reflect the future spaces and cities references to the future architect and how they behave while doing this mission. The detection of the relation between the present day counterparts and the actual places and cities’ film traces deliver important findings on the curious subject. When the relation presents with the analysis got from movies, it can be easy to compare the space of today, past and future that shown in films. To achieve and understand the relation with the real and movie world, first it is useful to explain the science fiction borders both in the literature and cinema area. Their roots, evolution from their existance to today. Besides these expressions, the other important point is to explain the relation between cinema and architecture. Also in this topic to explain science fiction and architecture relation and the future as a subject for both cinema and architecture. Science fiction exist with the same time of hman being. It shows itself firstly in legends. It develops with the human self understanding at the age of enlightenment. At first times of the title it is not called science fiction. It is denominated after 1900s in a magazine that is writen science fiction writings in. As it shown in these explanations, science fiction firstly show itself in writing. It jump into cinema at early in 1900s. Also it is not the first example for the science fiction film industry The Metropolis make these type very popular. The technology and cinema scopes used to develop it. Science fiction suddenly get its place in art of cinema. Especially future is reflected in movies and the themes are effected with the historical events. Cinema and architecture relation come with these reasons closer. In films the space is the most important thing to make the film persuasive. Space come together with time and both make the film realistic. Newly produced spaces and changes for the existing spaces give ideas to architects to design also architect products, spaces make the films rich. In scıence films ıt is two kins of spaces that used. The existing space and the fictional space. The existing space contains the buildings, cities and interiors that are in use or builded in past times and had importance in the historical survey. Their styles are often complicated. They house lots of styles in. Near existing spaces use in films, always need some non build spaces according to the script. These called fictional spaces. Its scope is models that made for the film with different styles and scales, the film sets put in the cities and virtual spaces that created with the computer programmes and developing technology on effects. Both make a film shown as a non places that not recognized clearly and different place from known places. Science fiction type yield lots of films that seperate in itself like fantastic movies, space adventures, mad scientist, the end of world. It is relevant to select related films for the thesis. The important point for the selected films are all reflect the future time. They set in an unkown time that take some places, cities and objects from this time. So they have a connection from past and today. This characteristic make them realistic and persuasive. In study six science fiction movies analyzes detailed. They are Metropolis (1927), Blade Runner (1982), Brazil (1985), Gattaca(1997), Minority Report (2002), I Robot (2004). Metropolis is cult and the ancestor all the others. This make it important for the study and to show the respect to Metropolis, it is the first movie. After Metropolis Blade Runner comes, it is as important as Metropolis. It displays very realistic future world with its eclectic style. The subsequent films are the part of the study for their realistic approaches. To reach the aim of the study the first way to followed is looking at the movies like they are animation of a city or place or building. This provides to understand how the spaces use in movies and the supplementation to reflect the future to the spaces. When watched the full movie following this way, it is gotten lots of datas for places, cities and interiors. This search completed the narrowing scale, cities, buildings and interiors. Films have these three kind of spaces and their languages can be different or similar to each other. For the first step of the work, datas from films listed and the spaces categories as the existing space and fictional space. The existing spaces are presented with their building date, styles, importance for their place and estimated why they can be used in the films as a set. The look to film spaces both the real and fiction spaces, it is clear they are not have different specials from today’s. Some remarkable details are the scale for indivials become overwhelming, human and city interaction has a role for the fiction of the city, urban plane developed from the vertical side after the hierarchical system, the future theme is reflected mostly with the objects using the technology. Besides these spaces and buildings have some deformations and supplementations like the material changing and the atmosphere modifications. Alongside of them the decisive changes are seen in the trasnportation, vecihles and advertisement area. Digital billboards are used in facades of the buildings like the part of the architecture. Vecihles are designed using the latest technology and developed with the parking systems and roads to use them on. Having these datas from the first stage, in the following step these and the real today’s time compared with the nearly some images that taken from movies and cities’ photos. With this comparison, the similarities and differences put forth between the city skyline, buildings and interiors. After all this study datas, it can be said the science fiction films that mentioned from future reflect the future with the developing technology on the small pieces like vehicles, furnitures, roads mostly not on the spaces. The space reform can not be easy as thought. Because all space link humans to past. It is not easy to destroy all heritage done in a long time period. To look at the spaces used in films they contain mix styles can be called eclectic. The new and ex come together to picture the future projection. While doing this projection, one by one the human scale in city and the city scale enlarged. So the human indicated meek in the space. The high ceilings and the skyscrapers cause this result too. In the city there is a class that puts the power in their hands and they described with their high, big buildings and püre inteiors, another class who defy the change shown in seperate places outside of the city or the old settlements, and like these ones a class who is public not a part of the strong or the defier, lives in ghettos and collapsed buildings. Of course the future idea is often seen in high buildings with its techonology. Its systems, materials, recognition of the owner, vecihles all things come to mind are different the ones known. Result of all these things it can be said changing the architecture is not easy because of the roots with the world and history of mankind. The cinema take into consideration this mining and use the existing spaces with some supplementations like effects, color changes. For create the new areas it use the sets to make realistic spaces like roads covered with high buildings or interiors with a familiar figure from well known building. Models can be used to generate especially the city skyline. All these that mentioned includes the movies that have realistic future concepts. Of course the fantastic ones contains incredible spaces that have gravity independence, inverted houses, space buildings which they are not for the near future. They are all out of research that they have imaginative power.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2013
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2013
Anahtar kelimeler
mekan, gelecek, bilimkurgu, temsil, space, future, design, science fiction
Alıntı