Kadıköy-Moda-Yeldeğirmeni Çevresinde Art-Nouveau/Jugenstil Cephe Düzenlemeleri

Kutun, Banu
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Art Nouveau, Osmanlı imparatorluğu'nda 19. yy' ı n son çeyreğinde, Avrupa ile aynı. dönemde varlığını hissettirmiştir. îthal edilen günlük kullanım eşyalar ile bir donem İstanbul yaşantısında önemli bir yer tutmuştur» Bu akım özellikle II.Abdülhamit ' in ülkeye davet ettiği saray başmimarı R. d'Aronco ile başlayan ve diğer mimarlar ile yaygın bir şekilde mimarlıkta uygulama alanı bulmuştur. AN/JS, mimarlıkta daha çok dekoratif biçimlenmelerle ilgi çekmektedir. Ancak Osmanlı mimar 1 ışındaki motif olarak değilse bile kompozisyon özellikleri bakımından Avrupa Art Nouveau' sundan ayrılır. Bu. özellikler Osmanlı Art Nouveau' sunda kendine özgü bir karakter yaratmıştır. Beyoglu-Galata bölgesinde Avrupa Art Nouveau' i ar in daha yakın bir üslup gözükmekle beraber Kadıköy yakasında geleneksel kalıp ve malzeme tekniklerine daha bağlı olarak gelişmiştir.Plan şemalarında önemli bir değişiklik gözlenmez.Çoğunlukla iki veya üç katlı olan yapılarda yükseltilmiş bir bodrum sık görülen bir uygulamadır.Kadıköy bölgesinde incelenen anonim yapılarda dekorasyon düzenlemeleri Osmanlı sivil mimarisinin cephe düzenleme ilkeleri parelelinde belli mimari elemanları süsleme için değerlendiren bir tavır içinde kullanılmıştır.Cephe simetri ekseni üzerindeki orta bölüm çıkma yapmıştır.Karakteristik süsleme örnekleri daha çok burada gözümüze çarpar.Binalar AN/JS motiflerle bezeli sacak veya parapetler ile sonlandırılmıştır.Bu dönemdeki A.N. mimarlık örnekleri cephede demir malzeme ilede uyumlu bir şekilde ortaya çıkmaktadır.Ancak bu uygulama.Kadıköy yakasında Avrupa yakasından farklı olarak geleneksel üsluba daha bağlı bir şekilde karşımıza çıkar.
The term "jugenstil" derives from the title of the journal 'Jugen' (Youth) which was founded in Munich in 1896 by Otto Eckmann and which not only provided a forum for many artists and writers of the day but also introduced typographical innovations. Indeed, everywhere in Europe it was often a journal that served as a rallying point for young artists and an as organ for their new i dea s » In i 89 i t he mag asine ' Revue B 1 a. nc he ' beg a n publication in Paris, bringing together such important painters of the period as Pierre Bonnard, Edouard Vuillard, Felix Vallotton and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and numbering amongst its contributors writers who made their mark on the French literature of our century. A group of artist in Brussels who called themselves ' Les Vingt' shared very much the same ideas as the 'Revue Blanche' » In 1883 twenty young artists joined together un der this name. they had no fixed programme, their objective being to formulate their ideas of a new style, at the same time encouraging an international exchange of ideas, especially with the group in Paris» I hose who look back nostalgically to a world of q i i tterincj names, to the society of the ' brunderseit :', the post --1871 boom period, forget. the mood of almost revolutionary upheaval which pre? vailed during this period. The external picture is contradictory, often lying in the sphere of sensual perceptions and experiences of a single generation. It can already be seen at his point that Jugendstil. comprises a wide field which has not even yet been fully explored, simply because it encourages such totally subjective expectations and ideas almost all of which, moreover, a.re correct. Rarely has a concept of art been characterized by such a. wide span of expressive forms- wit hin such a short period as at the turn of the century. On the one hand luxury products created by a generation in search of its own form of expression, on the other the artist's personal commitment to a period which sought, to restore the unity of art and life. Alas, the very errors of taste of the 19th century which the style movement atti^cked and from which it liberated us unjustly bear this VI name so t hat t plush -and palmss are ofttın described as stylistic elements of uugendstil. All the artists o-F this period in all countries shared the same quest -for a new.form of art which would be free -From historicism and academism. The eclecticism of- the preceding decades was no longer enough» Literature» the human sciences and technological progress set standards which artists could no lonqer meet. Groups were formed in the various countries, sharing the same spirit, and merely bearing different names, to work for the realisation of a great, new programme which whoulu serve to unite past and future, embracing the whole sphere of life» This movement which swept Europe was called Art Nouveau in France and Belgium, Modern Style or Arts and Crafts in England and America, IMieuwe Kunst in Holland, Stil Floreale in Italy, and Secessionsst.il in Austria, The names may vary, but the tone and content a.rs the same. They all embrace what is new and independent. Thus the concept is interchangeable and the message quite the same. Whatever the language, what was new grew out of the material, intellectual and social restructurat ion which took place around 1900 and was characterised by common features, whose imprint, varied -from country to country. Up to the beginning of our own century, the world expos i t ions were a. goldmine of inspiration for our arts and crafts. While the rather romantic social ideas of the period found expression in certain examples of applied art, its influence was generally manifest. Art was no longer t o fo s a n o r n a m e n t t o the g 1 o r y o f t h e c o u n t r y o r the Creator but rather a concrete necessity. This was an indispensable condition for succes. There was to be close c o n t. a c t b e t w e e n t h e a r t i s t a n d h i s o a t r o n ; t h e p r i r \ c i p 1 e '' 1 ?' art pour i " art " o r i g i n a t. e ö ı n E n g land, already at the beginning of the century the revival of the old concept of utilitarian approach to art. They abandoned the forms of the more recent past, reverting to Celtic art. and seeking new possibilities in the naive work of craftsmen. It would foe wrong to view Jugendstil as a combination of various familiar styles, but equally wrong to disregard these. They s.re stones in the mosaic of this colourful art structure. The idea of cooperation in craftsmanship, of workshop communities was medieval in concept, as was structure which dominated the product. A combination is manifest in the denial of rigid form, in the filling of surfaces with vigorous floral ornament. The designer in the widest sense of the word was born» The newly- acquired sense of style was manifested in, Henf VII greatest artists of his time, provides a particularly clear example o t this. While he too was moved by the sp i r i t of soc i a 1 re-fo r m, in t he -final a na. 1 y s i s t. h i s o n 1 y provided an extra stimulus. Even if Victor Harta desianed a "Ksison tiu Peuple", he still remained the architect of the distinguished town palais in Brussels. The pyhsical fragility of many objects - and of precisely the most.Jug endstill creatio ns - was closely linked wit h t he private status of the persons who commissioned them. Such objects would never have roused the interest of this clientele had they not been fragile and luxurious in c h a r a c t er. Ar o u n d 1 9 0 0 t n e indi y i d u a 1 h o m e, t. h e v illa o f the patron, represented the most important architectural work, linking together the services of all other artists. In Germany after the turn of the century, as well as private collectors, there were art patrons who commissioned artists not only to satisfy their personal taste but also to fulfil what they considered to be a genuine cultural task and ethical obligation. Considering themselves as an elite and arbiters of taste, they hoped that members of all classes would follow their example.- These distinguished organisers helped artists such as van de Velde and the Wiener Werkstatte in Austria to realise their ideas. The situation in Belgium was similar to that in Germany. Artists received commissions mainly from the rich aristocracy and wealthy bourgeoisie who viewed their patronage of new artists as a cultural mission. In the early days of the movement Belgium was closely linked with France but gradually dissolved this relationship, orientating increasingly towards the progress! v e g r o u. p s o f artists in Germany and Austria» Thus the most important B r u s s s e 1 s, w a s b u i 1 1 b y t h e W i e n e r In France it was a group of enlightened art dealers who, together with private patrons, helped Juqendst i 1 1 to achieve its breakthrough. The be s t -known of these was Samuel Bing. He opened a gallery called Art Nouveau in the Rue de Provence where he displayed exapmles of the New Style. Bing, who was born in Hamburg and began as a dealer in Japanese art, also introduced van de Velde in Paris. At first the style imported from Germany encountered violent opposition from protagonists of the floral school, but its- influence finally prevailed» Bing was also the first to bring the work of the American glass artist Tiffany to the t h e European public. The Wiener Werkstatte, chief representative of art VIII activity in Austria after the dissolution of the Viennese Secession, owed its existence to a generous financier, the young merchant Fritz Warndorfer. He also cultivated contacts with England and commissioned the G'iascow artist group around Mackintosh to design and furnish a music-room for his home. Frits Warndorfer was a founder -member of the Wiener Werkstatte and took over the business management. Thanks to his good contacts the group received numerous building contracts which enabled its artists to work independent ly. The success which Jugendstil had almost from the beginning was due to these men. They laid the foundation for the work of modern artists who were able to develop freely,' unhampered by popular trends in taste. The documentation displayed here concentrates upon showing the characteristics of the various cultural movements within the Jugendstil movement and their stylistic influence. The exhibition has been arranged with this objective in mind. Thus the sequence of photographs has not been divided up according to countries or categories of art but rather follows a development both in the cultural-sociological and formal sense. This sequence ranges from exuberant floral design over graphic ornamentation in flowing, a n emp hat i c a 1 1 y cubic Art Nouveau got into Ottoman life by means of foreigners who came to do a job» some Levantines who requested modern decoration, some ottoman officers and some rich families who were in contact with Europe. These were the principal consumers of Art Nouveau. Today, there is a rich collection of structures in Art. Nouveau. style in Istanbul. The majority of these structures ar& situated in Harbiye, Osman bey, İstiklal Caddesi, Büyükdere, Bakırköy and Yeşilköy. In this rich collection, there 3. re some applications which associate Italian Floreale, the geometrical arrangement of Olbrich, Hor t a' s staınedglass windows and also there B.re Mackintosh's windows, decorative balustrades and iron doors associating castle Beranqer. The most evident characteristic of Art. Nouveau is the use of the floreale and geometrical arrangements together. Materials made of steel and iron were, used of t r a d i t i o na 1 a r c h i t ec türe mat e r i a. I s in Eu r op &s.r< A r t Nouveau. This caused a change and an abandonment in some construction caracter ist ics in the Pera-Galata a.rea. IX Wood was a new material, thus it was opened an opportunity of new occupation -for the indigenous craft man. Using new materials caused the appearance of ' some new ornaments which had never been seen before» For example, the ornaments of Cemil Bey residence haven't been appeared up to now. Althought there was a tradition of carving in Turkey» these ornaments remained an original study of Raimondo D'aronco. But some other groups of ornaments in the same residence were appeared in the small balconies and the edges of windows of some other rec i dences. The buildings constructed between 1905-1925 in the Kadıköy area manifest the caracter ist ics of Art Nouveau. There is generally coherence of style in An authentic style appears in anonymous structures in spite of a syntetic composition in professional appl icat ions. The decoration of the facade shows similarity to the arrangement of Ottoman civilian architecture. There isn't a decoration which covers all the facade like in the Italian Floreale motives which are used a lot on the facades in Per a. The ornamental motives manifest the effect. of u'ugendst i 1 A lot of motives are produced in certain patterns. The motives of this style a.re used profusely. Art Nouveau didn't cause any important changes in the plans of anonymous structures. However some new elegance appear in the use of the traditional patterns (Sitution, dimension and ornament at t ion of the motives in balconies. ) In Istanbul, Art Nouveau architecture did not make use of different coloured materials in construction. Colour was only used in stained-glass windows. I tWiste1 buildings sometimes have three floors and often raised wooden cellar.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1993
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
Sanat Tarihi, Art Nouveau mimarisi, Osmanlı Devleti, İstanbul-Kadıköy, Art History, Art Nouveau architecture, Ottoman State, İstanbul-Kadıköy