Kentsel Yenileme Alanlarının Sürdürülebilir Gelişim Modeli İle Değerlendirilmesi, Yeldeğirmeni Örneği

thumbnail.default.placeholder
Tarih
2015-10-23
Yazarlar
Çiçek, İrem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Günümüzde dünya nüfusunun yarısından fazlası, sağladığı olanaklar nedeniyle kentlerde yaşamaktadır. Çekim merkezi halini almış kentsel yapılar; toplumsal gelişme, ekonomik kalkınma ve yeni teknolojik düzenin simgesi niteliğindedirler. Özellikle 21.yüzyıl itibariyle eskisine göre daha da hızlı bir değişime uğramış kentler bu hızlı gelişmeler sırasında kaynak tüketimi, hızlı ve kontrolsüz yapılaşma, çevre tahribatı gibi ciddi sorunlar ile karşı karşıya kalmışlardır. Bu noktada çıkan sürdürülebilirlik kavramı başta kentler olmak üzere global ölçekteki yapılanmanın gelecek nesillere zarar vermeksizin iyileştirilmesi ve geliştirilmesini amaçlar. Çevrenin korunması ve iyileştirilmesi için ortaya çıkan sürdürülebilirlik kavramı toplumsal refah düzeyinin arttırılması, sağlıklı ekonomik kalkınmanın gerçekleştirilmesi ve daha iyi bir çevre amaçları ile sürdürülebilir gelişme kavramına dönüşmüş ve yaşanabilir kentler için bir zorunluluk halini almıştır. Çok katmanlı ve karmaşık yapısı ile öne çıkan sürdürülebilir gelişme, üzerinde çalışılan kent parçasının, kendisi başta olmak üzere kent, bölge, ülke ölçeğinde doğru bir şekilde geliştirilmesini amaçlar. Sürdürülebilir gelişme yaklaşımları yeni oluşturulan kentsel alanlarda olduğu kadar, zamanla çeşitli sebeplerden ötürü köhnemiş yada atıl duruma düşmüş kentsel yenileme alanları için de büyük önem taşımaktadır. Çoğunlukla kent merkezlerinde yer alan, fiziksel olarak sağlıksız hale geldiği için yenilenme yada dönüştürülme ihtiyacı duyulan bu alanlarda mevcut sosyal kimliğine zarar vermeden, alanın kent belleğindeki yeri düşünülerek üretilecek yenileme senaryolarında sürdürülebilir bir yenileme yaklaşımı büyük önem taşımaktadır. Yenileme süreci öncesinde yapılacak analizler ve etki değerlendirmeleri alan için üretilecek çözümlerin doğru ve tutarlı olmasını sağlayacaktır. Sürdürülebilir kentsel yenileme kapsamında, İstanbul'da seçilen Kadıköy Yeldeğirmeni Kentsel yenileme alanı incelenmiş ve çalışmanın ilk aşamasında kentsel yenileme öncesindeki durumu ortaya konmuştur. Bu aşamadan sonra hali hazırda hala uygulaması süren kentsel yenileme projesi anlatılmıştır. Katılımcı süreç vurgusu İstanbul'daki diğer kentsel yenileme projelerinden ayrışan Yeldeğirmeni çalışmanın üçüncü aşamasında bulunduğu ilçe Kadıköy ölçeğinde Licon'un "Sürdürülebilir Gelişme Modeli" yardımı ile değerlendirilmiştir. Değerlendirme öncesinde ilçe üzerinde yapılan analizler ve ilçenin sahip olduğu çevresel, ekonomik ve sosyal veriler yardımı ile bulgular ortaya konmuş, bu bulgular ışığında alan verileri model içine işlenerek, alanın sürdürülebilirliğine dair sayısal veriler elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen bu sayısal veriler sayesinde Yeldeğirmeni'nin sürdürülebilir gelişme noktasında mevcut durumu, güçlü ve zayıf yanları ortaya çıkmıştır. Çalışmanın son aşamasında ise tezin temel amacı olan Yeldeğirmeni ve bu nitelikteki diğer kentsel yenileme alanları için ekolojik tabanlı sürdürülebilir gelişme kriterleri belirlenmiştir.
More than half of the world's population has been living in cities and made cities main actors for the social and economic development of countries all around the World. Urbanization is a substantial element of social and economic development which leads to a significant concentration of human resources, economic activities and resource consumption in cities. Urbanization occurs in a fast pace and uncontrolled way most of the time. At the verge of the 21st century, the most important question is, how cities will respond the needs of individuals and society with this uncontrolled growth? The starting point of answering this question is understanding the needs of individuals and communities and improving the quality of the living environment. The concept of sustainability, particularly in cities is including the global scale purposes, improving and developing environment without harming the future generations. Protection of the environment that arise for a betterment of social welfare is increasing the level of realization of economic development and healthy environment has been transformed into the concept of sustainable development with the purposes of liveable cities. It has become a necessity for it. Sustainable development which occurred with multi-layered and complex structure is aimed to develop in right way with the scale of city, region and country. Sustainable development approaches, is imported for not only the newly created urban areas but also the parts which are dilapidated in time or became idle urban renewal areas. This areas which mostly located in urban centres, have become physically unhealthy so the regeneration become needed, so it is important that adopting the idea of renewing them sustainably without harming existing social identity.  "Cultural heritage" areas have further special significance. Because of their specialty, it is necessary to make analysis and impact assessment before the renewal process. Analysis and impact assessment makes accurate and consistent projects and solutions for this kind of areas.   The aim of this study is the determination of the ecological-based sustainable development criteria in the urban renewal and transformation areas. The idea of sustainable development that comprises the main purpose of the study, helped to promote a comparative evaluation for the urban renewal areas. Sustainable development model which has been developed by Licon (2004) used for assessment of the urban renewal areas. And then results of the assessment was used for creating sustainable development criterias.   In the first phase of the study of selected urban renewal area (Kadikoy, Yeldeğirmeni) has been examined and revealed its prior situation. During the study, the concept of ecological-based sustainability in urban renewal areas has been discussed. It has been searched not only ecological-based sustainability, determining the criterias and requirements of this concept but also how to integrate this concepts into urban renewal areas. The study shows that all of the components of sustainability are dependent to each other and besides economic and social sustainability, it is necessary to give particular importance to environmental sustainability for the ecological balance. After this phase, urban renewal project and its practices which still ongoing explained. At the third phase Yeldeğirmeni which was told as more sustainable with emphasis on urban renewal projects of İstanbul, was evaluated on sustainable development model at a scale of Kadikoy district. The fourth and final phase was identifying ecological-based sustainable development criteria with the help of the sustainable development model assessment which consists the main purpose of the thesis. This stage of the study constitutes the main purpose of it. Determination of ecological-based sustainability criteria will contribute not only Yeldeğirmeni but also other urban renewal areas which have similar qualifications with Yeldeğirmeni.   The model which was chosen for the sustainable assessment, works on comparative based. Because of this reason for the assessing the sustainable development, two more district has been chosen for to run the model. If we compare Yeldeğirmeni from its assessment results with the other selected renewal projects (Fatih- Fener-Balat, Beyoglu- Tarlabasi), it is easy to say Yeldeğirmeni is more successful project especially at the social sustainability. Participatory process could be shown for the reason of this success. Local people has been included the process of the project and the project's didn't push them to leave the area because of the economic reasons. Project is often highlighted with its collaboration with the non-governmental organization, local government and local community during the physical state of the process. Social support contributed rapid improvement on the area while experts were developing solutions and projects. Improved physical conditions caused increase of rents and because of half of the inhabitants are tenant; it was seen as negative affect by locals. Although they complained about it, interviews and observation in the area showed they were pleased to be in a renewed and improved environment. Besides this the buildings aren't supposed to renew from only one single source (local government or private sector through) so it has led to protect their own urban architectural form without losing their original urban pattern.   Yeldeğirmeni urban renewal project separates itself from other projects; it has to be developing itself in the sense of environmental sustainability on behalf of the positive aspects of social and economic sustainability. Public and green space which is created, aimed to eliminate the lack of public space in area, it can be done together with applications, infrastructure systems changes (traditional grey infrastructure systems into green infrastructure systems) and it can be made more ecologically sustainable. Green infrastructure proposal has to be taken up as an integrated approach. Using topography for collecting water, recycling materials and informing local people about this kind of ecological sensitive approaches will develop Yeldeğirmeni and also its urban environment.   In the developing process of the project, correlation of sustainability components, the combination of different actors who were included at the all phases and working with the different kind of experts was evaluated positively in the scope of study. It was seen as a result of assessment which was made on the study area that alone is no expert group, local government or governmental request plans is enough for the renewal project and decision-making process. For the healthy sustainable development process, it is necessary to include all of these three components. Sustainable development decisions should be given with the help of the present information (now), past experience (history), projected planning (future) and establishing the right connections between these activities. "Place" and "human" factor must be considered while planning the sustainable development. It means that solutions or projects which will produce for the renewal area has to be unique and focused on its specialities. It was understood that as a result of the evaluation of a single indicator alone is not able to provide the sustainability. High sustainability results depend on consistency and continuity of the singular values. Produced information about the sustainability and developments itself is still a complex and challenging process. The aim of this study is searching sustainable development possibilities in urban renewal areas in accordance with available date in case well prepared and wider data set could be used for future planning of Yeldegirmeni and the other similar areas. Because of this it is important to produce consistent and accurate information for the future data set.   This study designed as a living document and the flow of the information which produced by experts, local community and governmental organizations, has to be continued to do well at evaluation of sustainable development in the urban renewal areas. Sustainability needs interdisciplinary work and the complexity of the planning process, and requires a constructive and sensitive approach. So in the future, it needs to be done with powerful ideas coming from experts for evaluating areas and successful sustainable urban areas needs an increase at this practise.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
Anahtar kelimeler
Sürdürülebilir Gelişim, Kentsel Yenileme, Yeldeğirmeni, Sustainable Development, Urban Reneval, Yeldegirmeni
Alıntı