Endüstri Ürünleri Tasarımında İnsan-çevre-malzeme Etkileşimi

Gündoğdu, Melek
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Günümüz insanlarının yaşam anlayışları ve buna bağlı olarak da yaşam standartları teknolojik gelişimle paralel olarak değişmekte ve gelişmektedir. İlkçağlarda, kendi çevresinde bulduğu doğal malzemeyi, yine ihtiyaçları çerçevesinde şekillendirip kullanırken estetik kaygılardan uzak olan insanlar, kültürel-teknolojik ve bilimsel evrimle beraber bugün, doğada hazır bulunan hemen her türlü elemanı ve malzemeyi işleyerek sadece ihtiyaçlarını gidermekle kalmıyor, estetik doygunluğa da ulaşıyorlar. Bütün bunlar insan-çevre-malzeme üçlüsünün bu kültürel ve teknolojik evrim içerisindeki vazgeçilmez etkileşimin bir sonucudur. Bugün endüstriyel malzemelerin ve bunların işlenmesi ve kimi zaman birden fazlasının kompleks bir şekilde birarada kullanılması sonucunda çevremizde hatta uluslararası piyasada yeralan endüstriyel ürünler kullanılmak üzere insanların hizmetine sunulmaktadır. Bir ürünün oluşturulmasında tasarımcılara büyük sorumluluklar düşmektedir. Çünkü tasarımın reel anlamda kullanılabilir ve kalıcı olmasını sağlayabilmek için gelişen teknolojinin hızına erişebilmen, ancak kendi kültürel özgeçmişini estetik anlayışında yoğurmalı ve yine ürünün oluşmasında kendisine yardımcı olabilecek uzmanlarla ve sonuçta üretimi sonuçlandırarak sponsor firmayla olan işbirliğini en iyi şekilde değerlendirmelidir. Diyebiliriz ki; her yeni nesnenin doğuşunda tasarımcının bilinçli yaratıcılığının ötesinde, sunulacağı çevrenin ihtiyaçlarına (psikolojik- fizyolojik-estetik) en uygun yapıda olabilmesini sağlayan reel anlamda uzun araştırmaların gerekliliğidir. Ancak bu şartlar sağlandığında çağdaş anlamda tasarımcı-üretici ve tüketici açısından tam bir doygunluğa ulaşılabilmektedir.
Industrially produced objects are defining almost 90 percent of our close environment. As a result they are constantly being evaluated by the people whose environment they define. In these evaluations the relevant criteria change according to the intensions of the user, characteristics of the user, characteristics of the situation, effects of the rest of the environment and many other factors. People's world outlook, their tastes, interests, the range of their selective perception pover of observation, capasity for analysis etc. are ail affected, enlarged, changed,...by new cognitive inputs. Our knowlegqe, of the reality (social, physical, professional, ideological) is therefore bound to be at work when we perceive, feel appreciate, evaluate and react to, that reality. It is not possible to draw a line between these forms although it is possible to distinguish their mechanisms objects and effects. A multi-dimensional perception a sence of identification with all living being, the courage to objectivity and produce and creativity to find new, more human, but non theless, sophisticated technical solutions necessitate an aesthetic perception and approach. Architecture, compared to purely artistic disciplines, is lucky in having the help of science and industry, and the vital interest of the people on its side. It has the potential to serve as the proneer towards a new world where art education and progressive qualities of life In case of professional people whose main objective is to study and evaluate the product scientifically the condition is not much different: each evaluator uses the criteria relevant to his approach which inturn, is governed by the type of his discipline. An ergonomist controls whether the dimensional characteristics conform to the anthropometric data, while a mechanical engineer comments on the working of the inner mechanism, and an aesthetician notices the proportions of its parts. This is most natural. Yet, what is disturbing is the fact that most of the time they give no credit to the criteria which are applied by the other concerned disciplines. Usually the design criteria for a product are identical with the criteria for the evaluation of that product. The above discribed attitute becomes even more critical when being utilized during the determination of the design criteria for protucts. A one-sided appraisal ends in a biased evaluation; a one-sided design approach ends in a disaster from design point of view, such designed products are for from being a "complete" object. Design is full of paradoxes and most of them seem to be related to the principle of totality. What is necessary for new design? Infact the design history goesback to the antiquity ages, but at that time the design's arm usually was to make some tools for neccesity without carrying aesthetic worths. However in the course of time while people's intelligence has been changed evaluation of the cultural dealings so, the design's arm has been changed trough to find functional, aesthetic and orginal one. In these thesis has been explained the unified approach to the environmental criteria should be the solve objective of the designer. Infact the designer is the only person responsible for the coordination of diverse activities towards a given objective: The creation of a man-made object. In this unified approach the environmental criteria for industrially produced object are classified as follows: 1. Functional Criteria: a-Physiological b-Environmental c-Communicational 2. Psychological Criteria a-Perceptual b-Socio-cultural c-Emotional d-Expressional 3. Technological Criteria a-Materials b-Manufacturing methods 4. Economic Criteria a-Consumer b-Producer c-Macro The first and the second criteria is necassary to began a new design over any materials in any environment which should be conform to any users physiological or physical requriments. So, the designer must know, how to people live and what's their life style and also what they behave on their routine life as being confartable. Actually arm designer must observe its environment and socio-cultural norms be able to create a new one depending on user's people's necessity. The third criteria show us importance why do we know that each element's formation before to produce the right material or new object as quality depending on it's speciality. If we don't know different industrial materials specifications we never choose the right one at the right place. So, we always confuse to find the best manufacturing methods to process each one to be able to get complex one. The object should utilize proper materials structurally, visually and operationally. Also the object should employ correct methods that fit to the requirements of the materials and of the objects formal characteristics as we mentioned before it. Consequently, no mather what sort of product or system we consider how we identifty its features and how we describe it's characteristics, we will always find that all characteristics are interrelated. Thus, when designing any product we must know them all. If we do not, than our product may be not so much badly designed as in completely designed, for how can we know that the features we have decided upon are the most suitable? The interrelationship of all characteristics, and hence of all requirements for obtaining this characteristics means that we must always consider them together when undertaking any design task or injudging the merits of any product or system. Industrial design determines the form of objects that are to be mass- produced by machines. Rather than crafted by hand. But, while this has long been essentional definition, it is no longer sufficiently comprehensive, if indeed it ever was. We might be able to find some kind of product or perhaps a system in which one or more characteristics could be achieved without regard to some or all of the others. Suppose we are designing the pattern for a ceramic wall tiles or peehaps the different style a table ware, could we not decide upon all the features of our pattern or the shape of it without regard to the materials upon which it was to be printed or formed. To produce do not certainly for the design would be influenced by the sizes of materials or characteristics of the materials, they had chosen as well as by their texture colour, ability to hold the colours for the first one and also speciality and hardness and easy to take form the second one. They had selected and to show them off as they would wish. Certainly many engineering products have envolved over the years to become working systems contained by protective housings. No doubt this happened to our ancestors on countless occasions, producing the same sort of fury that deformation in our present day products can provoke. While deformation always occurred, they may well have been reduced in number over the years, as our forbears became both more skilled at selecting the best materrial for their type of implement and perhaps, at shaping it not just to suit manipulation but also to withstand the forces imposed upon it during use. The importance of a product's structure (in our design the size, shape function and material qualities of all them) for supporting a dominant working feature, not just for one operation but either for a prescribed number of operations or for a particular period, cannot be overstressed. In present-day terms it means that designers must not only know their materials, but also what can happen to these materials in the forms in which they are made and used under all expected circumstances. As buyers, they cannot hope to examine our products in such terms but they can identify those features they expect to last for as long as they think they want them. Then we can seek assurances that the structures upon which they are based have been proved satisfactory. Here reputable standards laid down by national and international organizations are most important. The reason for this is that these standards provide the designer with a kind of stable core around which other aspects with which it's concerned can be tackled in the light of market conditions manufacturing potential and manegement policy. The main influence upon changing values undoubtedly comes from ourselves. We create the market conditions that manufacturers must watch with great care if they are to build characteristics into their products (like table ware in these theases) inways that will appeal to us. However, our own attitudes are affected by our economic circumstances by the degree of choise afforded to us; by different sort of product: by advertising, which may well introduce new values or magnify others; and by social attitudes which, though more nebulous, can have noticeable effects. Shortly; quality and realibility become more important. We might note that as people have come to be treated more as human beings and less as production units in industry, so the design of factories and production equipment has improved in aesthetic terms. In our domestic lives we probably attention to the character of our homes and how they are decorated and also important our utility tools which must have been functional and, practical and nice appearence, not least because many of us now to this work ourselves and become more involved with the results. After all these appreciation about the design history we could say consciously or unconsciously the designer must consider all these requirements if it wants XIV to get the succesfull projects througt evaluable funcional products with the help of the others. The designer presents it's product sometimes in terms of the economic use of recources are in terms of the care of the aesthetic appearence of the buyers with the help of manufacture firms. Before all this happen, the designer must understand it's own environments and their neccessities and also it must know it's own recources and their methods of using and their values so that the designer could make a decision it's project. It is easy to create an utopic things which depending on designer's lange creative power. But, They might only be carrying with an aesthetic worth. They could'nt be used a tool. We could keep like things as an decorative pieces. Of course, It is important to create some like as good appearance. But also it is necessary to produce must be usefull and usally contemporary be help of requirements.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Endüstriyel tasarım, Endüstriyel ürün, Çevresel etkileşim, Industrial design, Industrial product, Environmental interaction