İşletmelerde istihdam türleri ve yeni gelişmeler

dc.contributor.advisor Ekonomi, Münir
dc.contributor.author Alçiçek, Zümrüt
dc.contributor.authorID 21998
dc.contributor.department İşletme Mühendisliği tr_TR
dc.date.accessioned 2023-03-16T05:54:15Z
dc.date.available 2023-03-16T05:54:15Z
dc.date.issued 1992
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1992 tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Teknolojik ve ekonomik gelişmeler sonucunda çalışma hayatına katılan yeni istihdam türlerinden en yaygın olanı kısmi süreli çalışmadır. Tüm bu yaygın kullanımına karşın, bu çalışma şeklinin her ülkede geçerli kesin bir tanımı mevcut değildir. Kısmi süreli çalışma bir çok ülkede tam gün çalış maya oranla hızla gelişirken, bu gelişme oranı ülkeden ülkeye büyük farklılıklar göstermektedir. Bu farklılığa karşın, incelenen hemen hemen her ülkede, kısmi süreli çalışanların hizmet sektöründe yoğunlaştığı görülmektedir. Ayrıca, kısmi süreli çalışmayı yürütenlerin büyük bir çoğunluğunu da kadınlar oluşturmaktadır. İşçi sendikaları bu çalışma şekli konusundaki olumsuz düşüncelerini sürdürürken, kısmi süreli çalışma bir çok ülkede hükümet politikaları ile desteklenmektedir. Kısmi süreli çalışanlara sağlanan haklar ve işverenlere getirilen yükümlülükler ülkeden ülkeye farklılıklar göstermesine karşın, genel olarak, bu çalışma türünü yürütenlerin tam gün çalışanlardan daha kötü koşullarda, bazı korunmalardan yoksun olarak çalıştığı söylenebilir. Bu nedenlerle de, son yıllarda belirli sayıda ülke, yasalarla ve uygulamada sağlanan korunmanın genişletilmesi amacıyla çalışmalar başlatmıştır. Yeni istihdam türlerinden bir diğeri ise Avrupa Topluluğu ülkelerinde uzun yıllardan beri uygulama alanı bulan, ülkemizde ise son 2D-25 yıl içersinde sınırlı olarak kullanılan ödünç iş ilişkisidir. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract The large majority of employed persons have a full time job and a- labour contract uithout limit of time and are paid a wage or salary. This typical pattern of employment prevailed up. to the early 1970S. But now, There is a tendency towards another types of employment because of economical and technical changes. The most common type of these new employment forms (atypical employment) is Part-time employment. Part-time employment has been growing rapidly in the last two decades or so, paticularly in industriali sed countries. Part-time employment has been used as a means to recruit additional workers into the labour force during periods of labour shortage and it is used in periods of high unemployment as an instrument of distributing work among a growing labour force. The. major difficulty encountered in any discussion of part-time employment is that of definition. There is no universally recognised definition of part-time employment. In most countries there is no statutory description of part-time employment, and different definitions are adopted for different purposes. In some surveys the defintions lays down a limit of the number of hours. That respondents must have worked to be classified as part-time workers. Some countries simply define part-time employment as daily or weekly employment for shorter than normal or statutory hours of works; other define it for certain purposes by reference to a fixed maximum number XL of working hours, and others again as employment within a fixed range. A few countries reckon part-week work as part-time employment. Workers employed part-time on a second job, whether it is additional to full-time employment or not, are included in the part-time labour force in some countries but excluded in others. Industrial home work is not included in same countries because no fixed hours are set for it, but is in others where employment statistics are based on hours effectively worked during the survey week. If we want to give some examples for these definitions ; Newzealandc Part-time workers are those who usually work less than 3D hours a week. Canada: Part-time workers are those who usually work less than 3D hours per week, excluding those who consider themselves to be employed full-time irrespective of their number of hours of work. United States: Part-time workers are those who(a) voluntarily worked 1-34 hours during the survey week; b)-worked 1-34 hours-far economic reasons, but usually work part-time; and(c) were with a job but not at work and usually work part-time. 3apan: Although there is no standardised definition of part-time work in iapan, in national statistics part timers are defined asCa) workers whose normal hours of work (per day, week or month) are shorter than those of the ordinary workers of the establishment, (b) workers who are considered to be "part-timer" or are given that or similar designation in the establishment, or (c) workers (including seasonal and irregular employees) who work fewer than 35 hours a week. İLD: İL0 defines part-time work as "regular, voluntary work carried out during working hours distinctly shorter than normal." Because of this different definitions of part-time employees, statistical and other data relating to part- time employment must be used with caution. xix Part-time employment has grown significantly faster than full-time employment in nearly all advanced market economy countries in recent years. But, the rate of growth varies widely from one country to another. Fur example, in Netherlands Part-time employment increased £53.6. per" cent during the period 1973-83. But in the United States this rates is 19.7 per cent. The number of part-time workers in industrialised market economy countries approximated kS million by 19B5, an increase of at least 2.5 million since 19B2. There are four major reasons why people decide to work part-time voluntarily. These are; - Married persons or persons with family responsibilities, may prefer to work on part-time schedules so they can more easily combine work and household responsibilities. - Persons mainly engaged in training, education or unpaid work, may decide that paid work is not important enough for them to work full time. - Part-time employment can serve as a gradual transition from full time employment to full retirement, - A highly progressive income tax may reduce the mariginal utility of hours of paid work for individuals, Besides these factors, some persons work on part- time schedules because they could not find a full-time.iob. Labour force survey showed that in 1 9B7 2.3 million employees worked part-time because they could not find full-time.iobs, mainly for economic reasons. And about 13 per cent of all part-timers, or 1.8 per cent of total employment belong to the group of involuntary Part-timers. Reeasons why people decide to work part-time vary considerably from one country to another. For Xlll example, in Europe part-time employment is sought especially by married women who wish to combine paid work with household responsibilities. In Canada and the United States it is popular amoung young people who wish to combine paid work with training or education For employers, there are several advantages of part-time employment. The principal advantages of part-time employment are that is help to reduce absen teeism and often improves productivity and the quality of work. It also allows them more flexibilty in organising work schedules since part-time employees are more readily available than others to work overtime during peak periods. On the other hand, the introduction of part-time jobs can run up against major obstacles because of the costs of reorganising work, hiring, training, personnel management and, in some cases, extra social security payments. Several goverment see part-time employment as a means of reducing unemployment. And they also see this type of employment as a policy instruments for promoting a more equal distribution of paid and unpaind work between the sexes or redistributing the volume of work among the employed and unemployed when a persistent shortage of full-time jobs occurs. If we look the structure of labour force working part-time the following characteristics can be seen; Part-time employment is particularly common among women, and their share is increasing. The proportion of women in part-time employment was 92 per cent in Federal Republic of German. 90 per cent in the United Kingdom, 85 per cent in France and 84 per cent Sweden in 1985. According to the Labour Force Sample Survey, the most of women in part-time employment is married. Married women accounted for 85.1 per cent of all women working part-time in 1975, the ratio ranging from 69.2 per cent in ireland to 88.3 in the United Kingdom. - From the point of view of the predominantly Female part-time employees the work is attractive becouse of child-care responsibilities, non-sharing of domestic work by husbands and the lack of good, low- cast day care. xiv A study stresses the fact that part-time employed women often accept lower paid work than mgn. At the same time they tend to do different.iobs. One of the reasons for the different work pattern of men and women are described as "the result of different socialisation, the exploitation of and discrimination against women in the labour force, and the fact that women retain primary responsibility for domestic work". The distribution of part-time work between age groups is not the same as in full time work. Generally part-time workers of both sexes tend to be older than full time workers. Part-time workers (for both man and women) are concentrated in the service sector. The second sector that part-time employment is concentrated in, is industry and the third is agriculture. The hours of part-time workers also differ accor ding to the sector of employment. Average part-time hours per week for both men and women were highest in agriculture and lowest in services. There are two special forms of part-time employment. One of them is.iob-Sharing. 3ob-sharing is usually defined, as "two people sharing the responsibility of one full-time position, with salary and fringe benefits pro-rated". 3ob-Sharing differs from traditional part-time work in two ways: Its purpose is to restructure career oriented, professional positions which can not be reduced in hours or split between two part-time employees, and it often requires a significant degree of co-operation and communication between shares. The main characteristics of the other special from of part-time employment is working when there is a notice from employer. Normally, part-time workers should have the same social security entitlements and obligations as do full-time workers, with the amounts of certain xv benefits, and the qualifying conditions, being ad.-justed proportionally to the time actually worked. But, some social security schemes contain provisions that can result in discrimination between full-time and part-time workers. Organised labour in every country views part-time work with considerable reserve. Therefore generally unions have not sought either to organise part-time workers or to increase opportunities for part-time employment. This has been due to a recognition that part-time workers are difficult to organise and that most part-time work has been of low status, poorly paid and without the protection that most full-time workers enioy. Unions stress that: 1)- Part-time work must be voluntary. 2)- Base salary scales and fringe benefits must be maintained. 3)- Protection against speed-up must be afforded k)- Uhere lay-offs become necessary some kind of seniority crietion must be applied instead of laying off part-timers first. These conditions are perceived as a means of equalising the status of the part-time and full-time worker. One problem derives from the type of.iob generally assigned to part-time workers. Such workers tend to be concentrated in a small number of branches, mostly in the service sector, where they are normally employed for auxiliary or low-skilled work and in jobs traditionally Filled by women. Part-time workers often have little.iob-security, particularly when there is no written contract of employment, in addition working hours may be irregular, without any right to the bonuses of such schedules normally payable to full- time workers. Seniority increments, pay during absence on -grounds of illness^ payment for Public holidays and overtime allowances may also be denied to part-time workers. In several countries participation in private xvi or public pension schemes is not available to markers una perform less than a certain number of hours of work during a specified period or whose income is below a certain level. Other difficulties for part-time worker are greater pressure of work, exclusion from enterprise-level training programmes, lack of career prospects and lack of access ta full-time.iabs. These problems have led a number of countries in recent years to extend their employment protection regislation to cover certain categories of part-time employment. Besides part-time employment, there is another new type of employment. In this type of employment one employer lends his worker to another for a limited and temporary duration. Althought, this type of employment is used in our country for the last 20-25 years there is no legal adjustment about it. en_US
dc.description.degree Yüksek Lisans tr_TR
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/23074
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü tr_TR
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights All works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject Hizmet sözleşmesi tr_TR
dc.subject Kısmi süreli çalışma tr_TR
dc.subject İstihdam tr_TR
dc.subject İşletmeler tr_TR
dc.subject Service contract en_US
dc.subject Part time working en_US
dc.subject Employment en_US
dc.subject Businesses en_US
dc.title İşletmelerde istihdam türleri ve yeni gelişmeler tr_TR
dc.title.alternative Types of employment and the new developments in firms en_US
dc.type Tez tr_TR
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