Pasif yangın güvenlik önlemlerinde etkili olan tasarım değişkenleri ile ilgili mevzuatın irdelenmesi

Özgünler, Mustafa
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Yüzyıllardır insanoğlu için potansiyel bir tehlike olan yangın olayı; gelişen teknoloji ve endüstrileşme ile günümüzde çok daha önemli bir problem olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Özellikle değişen ihtiyaçlar ve kullanım amaçlan ile karmaşıklaşan binalarda, yangın tehlikesi, küçümsenemeyecek boyutlara ulaşmıştır. Günümüz mimarlarının bu sorunu iyi tanımasının tasarım aşamasında alınacak önlemlerin başarısını arttıracağı kesindir. Bu çalışmanın amacı; yangın olayı ile fonksiyonel ilişkisi bulunan mimarların gerekli yangın güvenlik önlemlerini alabilmeleri için bazı kıvılcımlar vermek ve değişik çözüm alternatifleri yaratılmasını sağlamaktır. Böylece Türkiye'deki konuyla ilgili geç kalmışlığın yarattığı sorunlar en aza inecektir. Tezin birinci bölümünde; yangın tehlikesinin genel bir analizi yapılmış ve yanma olayının gerçekleşmesinde etkili olan faktörler açıklanmıştır. İkinci bölümde yapma çevrede yangın kontrolü ve yangın tehlikesinden korunma yöntemleri incelenmiş başlıca iki gruba ayrılan yangın kontrolü yöntemleri, 1) Aktif Sistemler 2) Pasif Sistemler olarak kısaca açılarak aralarındaki fark açıklanmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde Pasif Yangın Güvenlik Önlemlerinde etkili olan tasarım değişkenleri irdelenmiş, değişik tasarım aşamalarında devreye giren değişkenler sıralanarak açıklanmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde konu ile ilgili mevzuat irdelenmiş, yangın güvenliği ile ilgili kanun, tüzük ve yönetmelikler taranmış, mimarın tasarımında uyması gereken minimum koşullar sıralanmıştır. Beşinci bölümde ise Türkiye'deki mevzuat yurt dışı mevzuatla karşılaştırıldığında görülen eksiklikler sıralanmış ve yurt içi yangın güvenlik mevzuatını geliştirebilecek bazı öneriler sunulmuştur.
Fire, which has been a potential source of danger for human beings for centuries, nowadays has become a greater problem with the development of technology and industrialization. Especially, the number of fires which occur in developed countries increase at the same rate with the quantity of energy consumption per capita in the same countries. For example; according to a research made in 1964, in United States of America where the energy usage amount per person is the highest, it has been found out that 6.2 people in 100.000 lost his life due to fires. This number is 3 in Canada and 2 in England. Because the development of technology can not be prevented, ( in other words fire which is the source of energy can not be renounced ) it is impossible to eliminate the source of danger completely. Currently, this should not be a subject of pessimism. The meaning of fire protection, is not the elimination of the danger. The crucial point here, is not the beginning phase of a fire but the spreading of it; especially when it can get out of control. The first objective in taking measures of fire protection, is the prevention of spreading. In order to prevent the fire to spread can be taken some measures in the existing buildings; especially by early firedetection and, of course, by various ways of intervention. Delayed fire intervention means a more developed bigger fire. Briefly, reduicing the risk of fire and fire damage, lies on the time of intervention and the resolving of the problem. The only way of taking such measures in buildings depends on two principle approaches : . Informing the architects about the fire and its risks. Assurance of the usage of this information in then- designs. Nowadays, the development of the sciences, the complexity of the needs and functions of the buildings, lead today's architects to develop themselves. Assurange of this self-development can be realized by organized research. Although the volume of information is highly increased, the stock of information for a person today is not much more than yesterday. The reason of this, is that people who are related to the subject were neglected it or simply were not interested in it. In fact, most of the people believe that because there is no fire in the building in which they live or work, the measures of security are sufficient. Nevertheless, it is a wrong hypothesis. The number of persons died in fires that occurred in dwelling houses - which are considered to have a lesser risk of fire - are classified in the third place in the list of mortal accidents. The first place is occupied by car accidents and the second place by fallings. Moreover, the biggest fires in the past happened in big buildings of which the fire measures were considered the best ! This demonstrades that each fire risk has to be taken into consideration by the entire society. Unfortunately, there are only a few developed countries that initiate serious and scientific research about the fire protection. Each day, passing without an attempt to take precautions against fire is increasing our delay to intervene in this matter. Everyone has his part of responsibility here : first people working in the building industry, designers, architects and finally the rest of the society. The aim of this thesis is to present some issues for taking measures for prevention of fires, to architects who has a functional bound with the fact of fire and to assure them to find solutions to the problem. A fire which gets spreads due to insufficient measures, the absence of a control system and the unconsciousness can only be prevented in a building which can resist to fire. As it is known, the measures which can be taken at the design stage, are called "passive fire protection measures". Extinction and alarm XIV systems, which are set in the building at the end of the construction, are called "active fire protection measures". There is five tactics available to the architect to achieve safety :. Prevention; ensuring that fires do not start by controlling ignition and fuel sources.. Communication; ensuring that if ignition occurs, the occupants are informed and any active fire systems are triggered.. Escape; ensuring that the occupants of the building and the surrounding areas are able to move to places of safety before they are thratened by the head and smoke.. Containment; ensuring that the fire is contained to the smallest possible area limiting the amount of property likely to be damaged and the threat to life safety.. Extinguishment; ensuring that the fire can be extinguished quickly and with minimum conseguential damage to the building. These tactics are considered as design parameters of passive fire protection measures and are relevant throughout the design process. Consideration of these tactics will ensure that the building not only complies with the legislation, but more important, offers a reasonable level of safety. As the architects are more interested in passive measures, those systems will be discussed in this thesis. When an architect adopts a way to design a fire resisting building, he will have to take different measures at each stage of his design. And these measures will change according to the scale of the design. The reasons of these changes are that, in every scale the variants involved change. In the following sections of this thesis, those factors which vary according to the scale of the design and who may directly influence the fire, will be explained in detail. If those variants are well known, the measures to be taken, will be more efficient. If we classify the measures according to the scales, the first one will be factors influencing the development of the fire in the settlement scale design and the measures to take in the aim of eliminate them. The second xv scale is the building scale, and the third variants appear at the space scale, other variants are, the design parameter effecting at structural element scale, like beam, column etc. and the last one is, design parameters effecting at materials scale. After efficient measures at those stages are taken, there will be design variants influencing the scales of elements of structure and materials. If passive measures are not successful, other systems may be required, but if there is no passive measures of fire security in a building, the active systems would not be successful. The result would be a disaster. On the other hand, the reasons for which those passive and active measures are taken, prove the necessity to have some legislation on this subject to oblige the involved persons. It is indispensable to have a legislation that will contain : - All complementary information - Show ways for each case - Bring general solutions The people who will apply for such legislation, should also to informed about the dangers of fire. That's why the introductory part of this thesis provides a brief introduction to the theory of fire safety and introduces the technical terms of fire science that the architect will come across from manufacturers and authorities. It is even more important that these groups ( designers ) realizes the passive measures of fire safety on which the legislation is based if they are to be able to enforce it fairly and effectively. One of the common causes of problems between the design team and the authorities; are poor communication and a lack of mutual understanding. To resolve this problem, in the chapter III, Turkish Fire Protection Legislation is examined and compared with legislation of other countries in chapter IV. Some suggestions are presented here to complete the deficiencies of The Turkish Fire Protection Legislation. The gradual shift from prescriptive regulation to functional requirements in buildings is forcing designers back to the first principles of their technology. It is not enough to know, for an architect, how the passive measurement of fire protection in buildings should be applied ; he or she must xvi also know why he or she does it ; and how to assess and presents the relative costs and benefits of different ways of solving the same problem. In designing for fire safety this general trend is further marked by moves to expand the empirical approach on to a more scientific knowledge base. Since it is not necessary for architects to become fire scientists, the principles are laid out as simply and clearly as possible; and to supplement these a series of tables are included to offer approximate quidance on matters of fire, escape and fire containment. Fire may occur at buildings that have all the fire precautions, but the harms would be lesser than that of the buildings without any precautions. This is the basic principle of the fire protection laws. The job to prevention fire is mostly the user's, not the security precautions. Fire statistics indicates that the most important beginning reason of the fire is the mistakes done by man. For example, the 30.4% of building fires are because of careless handling of cigar and matches. When all these measures are taken correctly, the fire would not be a danger anymore for the human beings and the biggest role to assure this is to be assumed by architects and city planners.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
Bina bilgisi, Mevzuat, Tasarım, Yangın güvenliği, Building information, Legislation, Design, Fire safety