Bim-based facilities management: A aconceptual framework for bim implementation of the fm industry

dc.contributor.advisor Giritli, Heyecan Fatma Tezel, Ecem
dc.contributor.authorID 502172403
dc.contributor.department Project and Construction Management 2024-01-19T11:54:10Z 2024-01-19T11:54:10Z 2023-06-14
dc.description Thesis(Ph.D.) -- Istanbul Technical University, Graduate School, 2023
dc.description.abstract The Building Information Modelling (BIM) concept, which emerged in the early 2000s, contributes to the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry by enhancing communication and coordination between stakeholders, detecting errors in advance to minimize rework, shortening project duration, reducing project costs and increasing quality. BIM, which is majorly used in the design and construction phases, has the ability to store a wide variety of information produced at different stages of the building life cycle in a digital data repository. Due to its data storage capability, many researchers and experts argue that the main benefit of BIM will emerge in the usage phase, which is the longest and most information-intensive phase by nature. Buildings require several facilities management (FM) services to maintain their functionality, comfort, safety and efficiency during the operational phase, which starts right after the completion of the construction. BIM-based processes and applications that have caused a great transformation in the AEC industry, are undoubtedly changing the FM industry as well. Traditionally, building information is compiled as hard copy or electronic files that are, most of the time, incomplete, inaccurate, outdated or unavailable for further use. BIM can minimise these data-related problems and support facilities managers in decision-making processes through complete, reliable and available data. Therefore, BIM-based FM can be considered an information management methodology for the operational phase of the buildings. Although BIM has an increasing adoption rate, especially in the design and construction phases, it is unexpectedly low utilised in the operational phase. Researches indicate that there are several factors inhibiting the BIM-FM integration. Recently, numerous international researchers and industry experts have been conducting various studies focusing on BIM-based FM. In addition to academic publications, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published the ISO 19650 series of standards, which define the processes to identify and manage BIM-based information and exchange information among participants throughout the building lifecycle. Although the ISO 19650 series provide a holistic roadmap for BIM-based information management, it encourages countries to develop and implement national procedures reflecting particular industry conditions. Turkey has its own unique case in terms of the speed of BIM adaptation and implementation. BIM has been first mandated for the construction works of transportation projects in 2021. However, prior to this, companies that follow international trends and take initiative to implement BIM have enabled the Turkish AEC industry to achieve BIM Level 2 competence, parallel to other BIM-implemented countries. BIM Level 3, which refers to the highest level attainable in terms of BIM maturity, represents the state of full collaboration between teams on a common data medium. The rare examples for BIM Level 3 in Turkey consist of a few subway and airport projects, still Level 2 competence is more frequently observed. Industry reports and academic studies have revealed that the BIM-based data transfer to the operational phase is very limited. Yet, in the light of this information, it is expected to see the influence of BIM-based transformation experienced in the Turkish AEC industry on the FM sector practices. In this context, it is seen that there is a need for a holistic study to guide the FM sector during the BIM transition and implementation process. The aim of the doctoral thesis entitled "BIM-BASED FACILITIES MANAGEMENT: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR BIM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FM INDUSTRY", is to propose a conceptual framework that will guide the BIM adaptation process and BIM-based applications of the managers of the FM service provider companies and the building owners and/or tenants. In the Introduction section, which is the first section of the thesis, first of all, the subject, purpose, scope and method of the thesis study are explained. The second part of the thesis includes the existing literature on the subject field. This chapter firstly introduces various definitions of the FM concept, then examines the evolution of the FM industry on a global scale, and briefly introduces frequently used FM technologies and software. Then, using the science mapping method, it identifies the articles published in international peer-reviewed journals in the fields of BIM and FM, categorizes them according to the journal in which they were published, authors who prepared the publication, and keywords. In addition to identifying influential scientific journals, researchers and keywords in BIM and FM, this classification identifies areas that have not yet been adequately researched and reveals potential future research areas in BIM-FM. After examining for what purposes BIM can be used in FM, what are the challenges to BIM transition of the FM industry, and what are the required BIM information for various FM services, this thesis study introduces the 19650 series of standards developed by ISO for BIM-based information management. The third part of the thesis study includes field studies conducted to determine BIM awareness and BIM use levels within the Turkish FM industry. Firstly, a quantitative research was conducted to measure the BIM awareness and usage levels of industry professionals, to identify the information requirements necessary for making BIM-based FM, and to identify the barriers for the sector to provide effective and efficient service. An online survey invitation was sent to the leading companies of the sector to participate in the survey. Then, semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals running FM services in various building types in Turkey to discuss the factors that led to the limited use of BIM within the sector. The research conducted on the Turkish FM sector not only revealed the problems in the current business processes of the sector, but also showed that the sector has various expectations for BIM adaptation. In this context, in the fourth part of this thesis, a conceptual framework proposal is introduced that aims to facilitate the transition of FM companies to the BIM-based working process. The framework reflects on the ISO 19650 family of standards and proposes a BIM implementation roadmap considering the unique conditions of the Turkish FM industry. This is, to the best of the author's knowledge, the first attempt to develop a holistic guideline to implement BIM procedures and applications in the local FM sector, which is dominated by traditional business models, has old building stock and is developing its technological infrastructure. The two main principles advocated by the proposed conceptual framework are; the involvement of the FM team in the projects as early as possible and the BIM transition process to be advanced with a collaborative systematic with the building owner and/or tenant. The focus group study, which was carried out with the participation of industry professionals, in order to measure the applicability and validity of the proposed conceptual framework by the FM sector, takes place in the fifth part of the thesis. Finally, in the conclusion section, which is the sixth chapter of the thesis, the studies carried out within the scope of the thesis are summarised, the conceptual framework proposed for BIM-based FM is demonstrated and the contributions of the proposed framework to the BIM transition process of the FM sector are disclosed. Ph. D.
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher Graduate School
dc.sdg.type Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
dc.subject Building Information Modelling
dc.subject Yapı Bilgi Modellemesi
dc.title Bim-based facilities management: A aconceptual framework for bim implementation of the fm industry
dc.title.alternative Bim-tabanli tesis yönetimi: Tesis yönetimi endüstrisinde bim uygulama i̇çin kavramsal bir çerçeve
dc.type Doctoral Thesis
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