Kütüphanelerde Aydınlatma Ve Teknolojik Gelişmelerin Kütüphane Aydınlatmasına Etkileri

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Tarih
1995
Yazarlar
Yıldırım, Sibel
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Kütüphaneler; düşünce, sanat, bilgi ürünlerini ve uygulama alanları için gerekli belgeleri topluma ulaştıran kurumlardır. Kütüphane hizmetleri sunulurken, aynı zamanda, kullanıcılar için en uygun yararlanma ortamı da sağlanmalıdır. Bu noktada, yeni teknolojilerin kütüphanelerde kullanımının da hızlanmasıyla beraber, ele alınması gerekli en önemli kriter olarak, görsel konfor koşullarının sağlanması karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmada; kütüphanelerde aydınlatma konusu ele alınmış ve teknolojik gelişmelerin kütüphane planlamasına, aydınlatmasına getirdiği yeniliklere; aydınlatma teknolojisinin sunduğu imkanlara yer verilmiştir. 1. Bölüm'de; kütüphanenin tanımı yapılmış ve görev alanları farklı kütüphane türleri; türü ne olursa olsun, tüm kütüphanelerin sahip olduğu ortak amaç, açıklanmıştır. Kütüphanelerde fonksiyonel etkinlikler üzerinde durulmuş ve kütüphanecilere daha geniş olanaklar sunan; hız, güvenilirlik ve kolaylık getiren teknolojiler sıralanmıştır. 2. Bölüm'de; genel olarak kütüphane aydınlatması ele alınmıştır. Görsel çevre etkenleri (aydınlık düzeyi, parıltı ve renk) ve bunların alması gereken değerler, kütüphane aydınlatmasında kullanılan aydınlatma sistemleri ve belirli kütüphane bölümlerinin aydınlatma problemleri açıklanmıştır. 3. Bölüm'de; kütüphanelerde aydınlatma sisteminin niteliğini arttıracak çözümlere yer verilmiştir. Kamaşma sınırlaması, uygun ışık rengi ve renksel geriverim özellikleri olan yapma ışık kaynağının seçilmesi, aydınlatma kontrol sistemlerinin düzenlenmesi ve maliyet, bakım çözümlerinin dikkate alınması konuları üzerinde durulmuştur. 4. Bölüm'de ise, sözü edilen çağdaş teknik ve verilerden yararlanılarak aydınlatılmış kütüphane yapılarından örnekler verilmiştir.
Libraries are such societies that; cause the communication between readers and art, knowledge products. While giving library services, at the same time, the best using conditions must be secured. At that point, the importance of lighting, comes first. In this study; lighting in libraries and effects of technologic developments on library planning and lighting takes place. At the same time, the knowledge about the selections which the lighting technology brings is given. An architect is unlikely to design a satisfactory library building without a clear understanding of its function and procedures. Different types of library have different spatial and environmental emphases, and it is only too easy for an architect to assume that his experience in designing on type of library can be used, with only small adjustments, in designing another. In the first chapter; the main types of libraries are identified. The classification is by institutional framework. They are: 1- National libraries 2- University and high school libraries 3- School libraries 4- Public libraries 5- Special research libraries At the head of the formal or informal system of libraries of every country will be its national library. In the longer established nations it will have developed from, and still be based on, an old library, often still an old library building. University and high school libraries are to be found in every country in the world, and in general its functions are similar everywhere. The main function of the university library is to store bibliographical and audio-visual materials and to make them available swiftly to students, faculty and research workers. A few decades ago some university librarians would have seen their main role as service to scholarship and research, but today it is generally accepted that the university library is an active participant in the teaching and learning programme at all levels and that the largest single body of users will be undergraduates. It is commonly said that the library is the heart of the school: this truism certainly has meaning if we apply it to the central position which it should occupy in the school's internal layout. Public libraries are to be found in all parts of the world. They, though a common institution, have developed in different ways in different countries. Such buildings need to be particularly flexible, as they will have to accommodate exhibitions, music and theatrical performances as well as libraries for all ages. This all inclusive cultural complex may be appropriete in a medium sized town or in a suburb but it is unlikely to be necessary in a city large enough to have its own theatres, concert halls and galleries; it would be too expensive for a small town. Special research libraries have some important positive attributes in common. Their collections are usually limited in subject range but can have very great depth of coverage of their particular specialities. They are perhaps the most positive and active of all libraries in that they are the least inclined to sit and wait for their clientele to approach them. They not only acquire XI source material but also produce it by scanning and abstracting from a wide range of sources to meet the exact, and predicted, needs of their users. They are certain to rely more heavily than other types of library on technical equipment-photocopiers, microforms and in particular the new information technology. They serve as information centres for their parent institutions, and because of their dynamic approach the planning of their layouts is less easily predictable. In the first chapter, also, the relationships between areas is told. One of the earliest decisions the architect will be called upon to make concerns the relationships in space between the various operational areas and the priority of access routes between them. The obvious need is for the librarian to show by means of a diagram which sections should be closest together, which farily close, and so on. A little experience will show that this can be an exceedingly difficult task; any such diagram must invariably carry inferences as to the positioning of the areas, and this is a matter which the architect must approach with a completely open mind in order to develop a design. In the second chapter;the library lighting is told generally. Choosing the lighting for a library is a complex matter, because lighting has to serve several entirely different purposes and is question of balancing priorities. It must allow reading to take place in comfort and should contribute to the internal appearance of the room, and, to a lesser extent, to the external impression upon passers-by. On the negative side it must not dazzle, tire the eye, be intrusive to serious workers. It must be quiet and economical, needing as little maintenance as possible. To meet all these criteria there will be artificial light, which, within limits, is controllable, and natural light, which is very much less controllable but free. Because the human response to light is largely subjective, or at any rate conditioned, there are no absolute standarts by which success can be judged, and the librarian's experience can be as sound a guide as the architect's. Even a specialist lighting consultant will be expert on the best methods rather than the most acceptable results. In this chapter; also some lighting problems in some parts of the library takes place. For example, about stack lighting: In open-access or heavily used open-stack conditions, illumination can best be provided either by general room lighting (such as fluorescent tubes set into coffered ceiling panels with removable plastic shields), by direct shelf lighting or by a combination of the two. General lighting has the advantage of giving XH complete flexibility in the positioning of stacks and reading areas, but unless there are many light sources readers may cast shadows on the books. In the third chapter; solutions for the better library lighting is given. Strong light shining, or being reflected, into the eyes causes glare, and this not only irritates but makes the pupil contract so that it is less efficient for its purpose. The extent of the glare depends on a number of factors: the brightness itself, both from the source and from reflection, the size and position of the source and the number of sources in view. It follows that there is more danger of glare in open areas because of the greater number of direct sources and ways of reflecting them. There are a number of scientific ways of measuring glare. Ways of controlling glare is told in this study. The lighting technique has progressed to such an extent that, there are many artificial light sources with different characteristics. Among these light sources, there are the ones which are produced for library use and they have a good colour rendering and radiate less damaging light. An important part of the running costs of a lighting installation consists of energy costs. Savings on these energy costs is possible by controlling the lighting in such a way that the lighting level is always accurately matched to the actual need. Another reason for wishing to control the lighting has to do with human comfort and efficiency, both of which can be improved if the persons concerned are able to adjust the lighting to suit their personal needs and preferences. The illuminance level in a room can be controlled in a number of systems: - Switching (stepwise control) - Dimming (continous control) Lighting control ways fall into two categories: - Manual control - Automatic control xm Easy access to fittings is also an item of economic importance in maintenance; ornamental clusters in high ceiling areas which require scaffolding for lights to be cleaned or replaced are a librarian's nightmare. In the fourth chapter, there are examples of contemporary libraries and library lightings.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Aydınlatma; Kütüphane mimaris; Kütüphaneler, Lighting ;Library architectureLibraries
Alıntı