Kent merkezlerinin yenilenmesi

Aygün, Tülay
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
İçinde yaşadığımız yüzyılda kentlerin hızla büyümesiyle, konut alanları, iş yerleri giderek çevreye kaymış ve kent merkezlerinin çekiciliği azalmıştır. Banliyölerde gelişen yeni merkezler, kent merkezinin parçalanmasına neden olmuştur. Merkezdeki trafik problemleri, kirlilik, nüfus yoğunluğu boş arsa kıtlığı ve arsa değerlerinin yüksek oluşu nedeniyle birçok fonksiyon kent çevresini, merkeze tercih etmiştir. Bu nedenlerle merkezi fonksiyonlarını kaybetmeye başlayan kent merkezi giderek terkedilmiş ve köhneleşmişt ir. Kent merkezlerindeki bu durum, pek çok kentte, merkezdeki canlılığı yeniden sağlama konusunda, çalışmaların yapılmasına neden olmuştur. Kent merkezlerinin yenilenip ekonomik, sosyal ve fonksiyonel açıdan canlılık kazanması için değişik yollar denenmekte ve çözümler getirilmeye çal ışımaktadır. İstanbul 'da da Beyoğlu, önemli bir köhneme bölgesi olması nedeniyle pek çok çalismaya konu olmuş ve bu konuda değişik öneriler ortaya konmuştur Tez kapsamında kent merkezlerinin değişimi, nedenleri ve çözüm yolları incelenmiş, Beyoğlu için öneriler getirilmiştir.
City centers are the best location for the central functions and the businesses. They have dynamic structure because of their intensive use and the impacts of internal and external forces. The centers of cities preserved the importance of their location and their dynamic structure since the beginning of the history. Religious superiority of the elements at the earlier times were superseded by the business and social functions afterwards and the city centers provided dynamism to the cities as an economic and social focal point. In ancient Greece, the agora was a center for socially economic and political events. At the same time, the agora was a communication center for the town people where the interchange of news and opinions played as important a part as the interchange of goods. The separation of the agora from the temple precinct played an important part in Hellenistic commercial development. In the early middle Ages, economic and social life was slowed down as a result of the domination of religious elements. After 10th century, new production centers were constructed on the periphery of the cities as a result of reanimation of economic life in the cities. These new trade centers helped the transformation of the feudal structure of city centers in the Middle Ages. In the mediaeval city centers there were a continuous market area and business buildings for the tradesmen. As a result of increase in trade, craftsmen occupied a neighborhood and they were represented by a guild house at the center. The social life of the marketplace descended directly from the agora. Even the sports and dramatic functions of the original agora never wholly disappeared: knightly tournaments were still held in the marketplace at the end of the Middle Ages in northern Europe, and were fallowed in the seventeenth century by military exhibitions. During the Renascence and baroque times, the city centers became spatially rich and magnificence. The openings and classifications beautifully modified the structure of the medieval cuty. New buildings with their gravity and decorous regularity break up the harmony of the medieval pattern. Socially active plazas were organized in geometric forms and were surrounded by impressive palaces, churches and rich mansions. There were migration from the rural areas to the city center and the cities became overcrowded. Baroque city v sacrificed too much magnificence and well-being of men was neglected in the overcrowded living quarters. In the Romantic city center, it became important to open large parks and to design buildings with more light and air for the inhabitants. Suburbanization started and the aristocracy decided to desert their palaces and mansions in the crowded downtown following Louis XV in Paris in 1738. As a result of the migration of wealth and taste, the older parts of cities became the slam that much of it still is, the newer part of the cities were more open with wider streets, quiter and more private. A new and more isolated way of living became possible for the rich inhabitants far from the city centers. During the 19th century when railroads and large industrial installations came to the cities, the working place of work. A very important urge in this century was to remove the place of dwelling from any risk of contamination by society; some sections of the city exclusively devoted to amusement, education, finance, retail, wholesale activities etc., it is largely because the family moved out of them into a more congenial residental area. There is, first of all, a distinct separation between dwelling and place of work, an emphasis on streets and avenues instead of public squares (because communication between the various districts was more important than places for public gatherings), and an extraordinary proliferation of buildings with specialized functions. Industrialization also helped the development of construction technology and it became possible to build High-rise buildings to house large corporate required by the expanding business life. Development of transportation technology made it possible to transfer large amount of people from the suburbs to the city centers and to reduce the traffic jams caused by the private vehicles. In the 20th century, many business moved to suburbs, following people and deserted the city centers. This, City centers has continued to be slum areas. City administrators and planners try to guide out ways to reanimate city centers in order to, attract people to live there. Invention of electricity gave the opportunity to transfer energy to the periphery where the land and labour were less easily for the new industries. Thus exciting manufacturing at the center deserted the central location to move the periphery. In this study renovation of Pera is illustrated as a case study for revital izat ion of city centers. VI Pera sembol izes the focus of European cultural and economic influence in the Ottoman Empire. Originally, Pera developed around the European embassies, as an expansion of Galata, which was an international trade center throughout the centuries. Its major development took place during the 19th century asa a result of the westernization movement and the integration of the westernization movement and the integration of the Ottoman Empire with the Western economy. The main emphasis of westernization was to introduce new products and encourage new tastes and a higher standard of living to create a market dependent on the modernized countries. Encouraged by the growth of European influence and by vastly increased wealth stemming from Crimean War commerce and the 1838 trade treaty, Pera was furnished with the institutions, services and amenities of a modern European city. After the Collapse of Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, and economic, politic and social changes, Pera still continued to be the most modern district of Istanbul. In the 1950 's suburbanization movement started in Istanbul and wealthy families moved to modern neighborhoods on the periphery. Movie theaters closed down; many buildings were deserted. Pera became partially a slum area. Although Pera holds still a central position, it's business attraction is not as it is used to be because of traffic congestion. Despite is central city position, Pera could not attract developers because of its old urban structure: Streets were not appropriate to carry urban traffic. Land plots were to small to build modern office buildings for the new large companies which seek place in the CBD. As a result, Pera has for many years been the site of an inflow of low-income rural migrants. City officials have often expressed concern over some absentee landlords who convert Pera homes to rental units as in other historical neighborhoods of Istanbul, as well as over the general physical deterioration of the district. Despite its serious problems Pera has great potential for development due to its central location and historical value. Therefore, its revital ization is essential from social, from economic and historical points of view. Several tactics are proposed to revitalize Pera, such as subsidizing the renovation of housing, improving urban structure, and encouraging cultural and touristic attractions, etc. The multi-dimensional aspects of these tactics reveal that revital ization of Pera is complex task. The transformation of an economically depressed area into a more vital neighborhood usually results in drastic economic, and social as well as, visual changes. The problem is the adaptation of the historic vil neighborhoods to the modern circumstances harmoniously. In the final stage, the economic viability of real estate is the ultimate determinant of success or failure of historical conservation. Here are the purpose is not "setting aside", but maintaining or restoring buildings and neighborhoods as integral parts of the community, and perpetuating a desirable sense of continuity with the past by concentrating on structures or cultural values that may be retained in modern, functional use. In general, reinvestment in historical areas can be simulated by different ways depending on the characteristics and trends of individuals areas. In Pera, reinvestment may result from the increased demand of middle-class households, business and entertainment companies attracted to this area also from government intervention. The attraction of business firms to Pera will encourage economic development. As higher-income employees move into revitalizing neighborhoods. Their purchasing power attracts restaurants, stores and other commercial activities. Tourists attracted to these areas also provide a demand for services and goods. Since Pera is within the vicinity of large hotels, there are always plenty of tourists shopping in the Grand Rue de Pera. There are still few fancy restaurants and stores which keep the Grand Rue de Pera alive. Moreover, some government action may be taking to increase the availability of mortgages in Pera. Local initiatives can also spur neighborhood revital izat ion. For instance, some tax advantages may be provided to the owners who rehabilitate their properties. One of these advantages may be to obtain tax credits for the cost of rehabi l i tat ion. Another important stimulant to reinvestment in innercity neighborhoods is the bourgeoning interest in historic preservation. In Istanbul, the interest in historic preservation has already started along the Bosphorous as a result of economic benefits, association with the Ottoman culture and appreciation of fine architecture. It is expected that the growth potential of Pera and its historical buildings will stimulate the desire for renovation. Sometimes the pressure to renovate historic buildings comes from external threats to these structures. For instance in Pera, some buildings are now being renovated in order to prevent them from the city government's clearance projects. In Istanbul, construction of a subway seems to be most powerful tool to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods Vlll . The existence of a subway would enlarge the market area of Pera and thus will stimulate the business activities. It would also attract other CBD functions which can find space within the 19th century urban structure. Construction of skyscrapers tangle traffic, add to congestion within the district and scramble property values and development patterns in the area. It is worthwile effort to try to preserve the small town atmosphere of Pera that is rapidly fading from the large city scene. Attraction of show business is another important tool for the revital izat ion of Pera as the entertainment center of city. Entertainment companies are already returning to Pera and theaters and movie theaters are reopening. Improwing transportation system would also contribute to the recovery of entertainment activities by epanding the service area throughout the city. Application of these principles to a historical plaza in Pera is illustrated.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1990
Anahtar kelimeler
kent merkezi, yenileme çalışmaları, city center, renewal works