Gemi işletmeciliğinde yönetim bilişim sistemleri

dc.contributor.advisor Sindel, Demir Aylar, Levent
dc.contributor.authorID 14209
dc.contributor.department Gemi İnşaatı ve Gemi Makinaları Mühendisliği tr_TR 2023-03-16T05:51:55Z 2023-03-16T05:51:55Z 1990
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1990 tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Dünya ticaretinde, deniz taşımacılığı büyük pay sahibidir- Bu çalışmada öncelikle gemi işletmeciliği şekilleri incelenmiş ve birbirlerine göre kıyaslamaları yapılmıştır» Bu işletmelerin organizasyon yapıları araştırılmıştır. Gemi işletmeciliğini önemli ölçüde etkile yen ve navlun oranlarının belirlenmesinde önemli yer tutan navlun pazarı, gemi servislerinin arz-talebi, navlun pazarındaki düzensiz değişimler ve gemi işletmeciliğinde çeşitli harcama kalemleri incelenmiştir. Ticaret hacmine bağlı olarak tonaj hacminin ne ölçüde arttırılıp azaltılacağı ve pazardaki dalgalanmalara göre nasıl hareket edil ine bileceği açıklanmıştır. Ayrıca sektörde finansman kaynakları ve taşımacılıkta kullanılan dokümanlar da incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın son üç bölümünde yönetim bilişim sistemi ile bilgisayar uygulamaları üzerinde durulmuştur. Yönetimin ne demek olduğu, bilgi işleme ve bilişim sistemiyle, yönetim bilişim sistemlerinin genel kavramları verildikten sonra, yönetim bilişim sistemi için hayati önem taşıyan bilgi, bilgi kaynakları ve özellikleriyle veri yönetimi ve veri bankası üzerinde çalışılmıştır. Daha sonra tasarım ve uygulamaya geçilmiş, yönetim bilişim sistemi tasarım aşamaları, plânlama, bütçelendirme, pazarlamanın önemi üzerinde durulmuştur. Yönetim bilişim sistemi tasarımı için öncelikle problemin tanımı yapılmıştır. Ayrıca mevcut organizasyon sisteminin incelenmesi, tasarımı kısıtlayıcı faktörlerin belirlenmesi ve sistemin alt sistemlere ayrılma aşamalarının incelenmesi yapılmıştır. Sonuçta, örnekleme amacıyla D.B. Deniz Nakliyatı T.A.Ş.'nin yapısı ve bilgisayar uygulamaları üzerinde çalışılmıştır. Kullanılan bilgisayar programlarına ait ekranlar ve örnek çıkışlar da alınmış ve çalışmanın ekler kısmına konulmuştur UJ. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract One of the most important subjects which are offected from the technological changes and which facilitate the social life more and more everyday is the transport and communication sector. So, one and even the most important one of the basic infrastructures of all kinds of economical and commercial activities and social and cultural life in the society is the services of transport and communication. This means that in the determination of the development levels of the countries today, the level reached by the countries in the transport and communication networks besides the national income and energy consumption per man is becoming the determinant factor. The most cost-effective and productive transoprt system is undoubtedly the sea transport. Sea transport preserves its quality of being alternative in especially oceangoing and intercontinental cargo transport. So that even the countries no coasts (eg.Austria) are attempting to found powerful maritime fleets. On the other hand this preference towards the sea transport and the neccessity of founding the shipbuilding industry on the basis of labor intensive technology, from the wide-range contributions of this transport system to the national economy. Hence, in the developing countries where the leading problem is unemployment and forign currecny problems, sea transport and its sub industries preserve their priority state.|_2J- In order to define the shipping company, in the first chapter, the shipping services were classified. There are several ways of classifying maritime operations. The most classical criterion which will be applied in this study is that of the type of ship operations. According to type, shipping services can be divided into four principal categories ; I 3] - VX/A - 1) The oldest form of maritime transport is tramp shipping. It is also called as irregular shipping. In tramp shipping, ships haven't certain routs. Routs depend on the freight forwarders' and importers' requests. Tramp ships generally between 5-15.000 DWT are attached neither to a definite trade route nor to a definite cargo. 2) Another form of shipping is liner shipping. Liner shipping (regular shipping) appeared with reliable steamships. The term "liner shipping" is generally taken to mean form of ship operation over regu- lar routes, between the same ports, following the same itinerary indicated in the published sailing schedule. 3) The third form is special or industrial shipping. It is run with specialised ships such as tankers, liquefied gas carriers etc. These special ships, belonging to or chartered by the big industrial organisations, are operated over largely regular runs. It is for this reason that special shipping resembles liner services. On the other hand, it is not a common carrier, it has no schedules or regularity typical of liner services. 4) The last one is passanger shipping. After these, the organisational structures of shipping conpanies were examined and compaired between each other. Another section, the freight market and supply and demand of shipping services were examined. In general demand for transport results from demand for goods. The demand for shipping services and consequently for ships is a result of several factors such as; the size and structure of international trade, distance of transport, productivity of ships other form of productionism etc. It is agreed that the price of trans port is not the sole factor which determines the volume of demand for shipping services. Supply of shipping services is determined by the size and structure of the fleet in service, average time of operation and productivity of shipping. In the short term, there are only limited - VT/B - possibilities of increasing supply. Only ships operating other trades * or laid-up can quickly be added to the existing supply if demant for tonnage suddenly increases. In the long term, it is possible to inc- reas supply by constructing new tonnage or repairing and converting older ships. When the rates decrease so does the supply of tonnage. However, in the short term, owners can continue to operate their ships, even at a loss," if they hope the rates will increas again. Another section, is the freight market and-,i,ts classification. There are two kind of freight markets; under free competition and un der monopolistic competition. Fluctuations on the freight market are very important problem for shipping companies. Fluctuations of freight rates may take a form of sporadic changes, seasonal fluctuations and cylical fluctuations. Costs of shipping operations were examined in the another chapter. At first the shipping costs were classified. The classification of shipping costs is divided into 4 groups. Company overheads, vessel's overheads, voyage costs and cargo or direct costs. In addition to this, how influences of costs of shipping operations and fluctutaions on the freight market, affect to determine the freight rates were exaimedu+J. In another chapter; the financing and the official documents using in shipping were studied. Shippers can pay their invoice in two ways. "Documents against payment and document s against acceptance." In both cases the first step is for the exporter to deliver goods on board ship and in exchange, he receives the bill of lading from the shipping company. Secondly the exporters write the bill of exchange which is a sort of cheque. Then the exporter takes the bill of lading, the bill of exchange and the other shipping documents to his bank. The bank sends the documents to the irrporter's bank. lAhen the procedure is documents against acceptance, the importer doesn't pay his bank the - VT/C - money for the goods. Instead he writes the word "accepted" on the Bill of exchange and signs it. This means he promises to pay the money at ş. later elate-usually 90 or 180 days after the bill is written! it a 1 İİ. In last three chapters, management information systems and com puter applications for management information systems was exaimed. what is management? ffenagement is a planning, organisation, coordination and direction of sources of companies, in order to mate rialize the goals of companies. The transformations of datas into knowledge is called, information process system. The organisation bet ween the users and datas is called the information systems. A defi- nation of a management information system is an integrated, user- machine system for providing information to suppet the operations, management and decision making functions in an organization. In addition to management information system, another important point is computer applications of decision making process. The basic elements of information-operation are directives from managers, files, inputs and outputs LüJ. Knowledge, property of knowledge for management, information^' operation, data management and data bank are another important fac tors for management information system. The development of management information system and its steps are changable. At the development rank, the structures of information-operation system and data bank is fixed. The foundation of management information system can be collected under three basic title. First step is system definition stage. It consists of feasibility assesment and information require ments analysis. Second step is pysical system development stage. It consists of pysical system design, program development and procedure development. The last step is installation and.operation. It consists of conversion, operation and maintenance and control. At the beginning of the management information system development, - VT/D - problems at now and problems which can be occured in the future must be determined. Because, the long term plans depend on the possibili ties supported by management information systems which are developed in the organisations. Organisational system structure must be examined carefully. Restrictions factors of management information system must be determined and knowledge needs and sources must be exertained. After these, management information system can be begun to develop. The first procedure is the researching of the computer application for the system and hardware and software needs for computer applications must be examined. Because, it is very easy to calculate the transactions with computers. System should be divided into subsystems. At last the report for new management information system is prepared. The last chapter of this study is the computer applications. The structure and computer system of D.B. Turkish Cargo Lines Co. were examined. The systems in D.B. Turkish Cargo Lines Co. and in this study were compared. As a result, the importance of management information system was understood and management information system is being studied to develop for D.B. Turkish Cargo Lines Co. en_US Yüksek Lisans tr_TR
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü tr_TR
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
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dc.subject Gemi işletmeciliği tr_TR
dc.subject Navlun tr_TR
dc.subject Yönetim bilgi sistemleri tr_TR
dc.subject Marine Engineering en_US
dc.subject Shipping companies en_US
dc.subject Freight en_US
dc.subject Management information systems en_US
dc.title Gemi işletmeciliğinde yönetim bilişim sistemleri tr_TR
dc.title.alternative Management information system for shipping en_US
dc.type Tez tr_TR
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