Gemiadamlarının yeterliklerinin değerlendirilmesi için model araştırması

Bağçeci, Oğuz
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Denizyolu taşımacılığında rekabet etmenin en önemli koşulu, denizlerdeki etkinliklerin güvenirliliğini ve ekonomikliğini geliştirerek taşıma maliyetlerini azaltmaktır. Bu şartı yerine getirmedeki en önemli unsurun, denizlerdeki insan gücünün yani gemiadamlannın, verimliliğini artırmak olduğu bir gerçektir. Zira yeterli zihinsel ve bedensel bilgi ve becerilerle donatılan gemiadamları, çeşitli kaynaklan, gelişmiş teknolojileri, sosyal ve teknik sistemleri kullanarak denizlerde güvenlik koşulu geliştirecekler, her türlü ekonomik kaybı da azaltacaklardır. Bu nedenle, gerek belirli bir denizcilik eğitimi alarak ya da denizcilik eğitimi almadan geleneksel ustaçırak ilişkisi içersinde yetişerek, denizlerde çalışmakta olan gemiadamlannın ve özellikle gemi zabitlerinin, gemilerde yaptıkları ya da yapmaya talip oldukları görevlere uygunluklarının değerlendirilebilmesi için yöntemler geliştirilmesi, bugün için denizcilik otoritelerinin en önemli problemlerinden birisidir. Bu çalışmada, gemiadamlarınınn yeterliklerinin belirlenmesinde en güvenilir ve sonuç alınabilir sınav modellerinin geliştirilebilmesi için temel amaçlar, esaslar, bakış açıları ve teorik çözüme yönelik öneriler sunulmuştur. Çalışma sonunda, denizyolu taşımacılığının verimliliği ile denizcilik eğitim öğretimi ve gemiadamlarının yeterliklerinin değerlendirilmesi arasında çok yakın bir ilişki olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Aynca gemiadamlarının yeterliliklerinin değerlendirilmesi için bir çözüm modeli önerilmiştir.
It is widely acknowledged that the last decade has produced significant changes in the manning of ships and the organization of work on board. In particular, there have been major technological developments in shipboard equipment, which have greatly changed the nature of the work undertaken on board, the skills needed by today's seafarers and the number of seafarers required to man modern vessels. Although all of these technological developments provide greater efficiency and greater safety, it may be also said that adding more sophisticated equipment to the ships may be no avail if the people on those ships have no idea how to use this equipment. Therefore something should be done about better education for seafarers. According to the survey which has been carried out recently by P and I clubs in U.K., estimates reveal that 46% of all major claims are caused by shipborne personnel, Mr. William O'Neill, Secretary General of the MO, goes ever further, by estimating that up to 80% of seaborne accidents can be directly attributed to human error. Having identified the principal cause as human error, we can easily understand the role of education and training establishments and safety management system alike. Maritime education and training encourages component integrated action and minimises the effect of potential hazards. The problem of maritime safety is global and affects the whole shipping economy. If world demand decreases for the carriage of goods by sea, this causes ship owners to economise as far as maritime safety is concerned where they find that they are subject to conditions of maximum productivity in a climate of perfect competition. Maritime safety is not yet seen by the industry as a fixed cost, inevitable when setting their profit margins. xii There is a shortage of officers and ratings, in developing countries. As well as the quantity of the personnel needed to meet this shortfall, the quality of education also becomes very important. Some trends are already apperant in Turkey. Many of the traditional Turkish coaster owners are now looking to move up the scale into the handymax sector and a number of them have been active in secondhand markets. As the Turkish maritime fleet has expanded there has been an associated necessity to train more seafarers. As a result of shortage of qualified seafarers, the examination and certification of seafarers which are under the effects of the mandatory regulations of International Conventions especially International Convention on Standarts of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, has become a serious problem in all MO Parties. The International Convention for Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) is the only international treaty that deals with the training, certification and watchkeeping of the seafarers and forms the basis of national standarts all over the world. It has by now been ratified by 103 countries whose combined merchant fleets represent 92.79 % world tonnage. However, it had two major shortcomings. The Convention was, even being adopted, regarded as a compromise between those nations wanting very high standards and those who were concerned about their ability to implement such measures. As a result, many measures were adopted as recommendations rather than mandotary regulations within the Convention itself. The second shortcoming was that amendments to the articles of the Convention would not enter into force until well into the next century, since these can only enter into force after they have been ratified or accepted by two^thtrds of Contracting Parties. Due to this, an updated and revised Convention have been adopted at a conferance held in June-July 1995 (STCW 95). A Seafarers' Training, Certification and Watchkeeping Code annexed to the Convention, contain its technical provisions. Part A of this Code, limited mainly to legal matters such as entry into force provisions, amendment procedures, applications and so on would be made mandatory by means of references within the Convention. Part B of the Code contain recommended guidance. xiii Revised Convention contain detailed provisions for verifying compliance with requirements of the entire process leading to the issue of a certificate. This is particularly important because certificates issued by one Party are generally regarded as a licence to serve on ships of other Parties, yet none of these Parties can realistically judge whether the certificates have been issued in conformity with the spirit and the letter of the Convention. Addtionally, it has been suggested that in some countries, there may be insufficient controls over the security of the examination system and over the issue of certificates, so that inadequately trained seafarers are able to secure by fraudulent means the qualifications entitling them to undertake watchkeeping duties. The review is also taking into account technological change by including mandatory provisions and recommendations for the use of simulators for training and evaluating purposes, for assesing competence and in reduction of sea-going service. So in this research study; the Turkish maritime education and examination system of seafarers will be examined in view of international and national regulations, and maritime sector needs in order to improve maritime safety and productivity This thesis will attempts to develop an optimal model to seafarers' examinations by taking into account revised international standarts, new technological developments and future evaluation needs of the industry to assist determination of solution model and subsystems. The study covers ;. a description of the problems of the current system of Turkish Maritime Education and Examination and Certification of Seafarers.. a comparison of international regulations, codes and recommendations adopted by IMO, with national legal regimes.. an outline of national and international administrative organizations that affect such seafarers' examinations and certification.. a research study about the human factor in marine accidents. xiv . the determination of a new national examination model for seafarers and conditions of a national examination centre or directorate of examination standarts. In developing, this model, This thesis reached the following recommendations In contrast to the remarkable increase in capacity of the Turkish Maritime Fleet, educational infrastructure in maritime education has remained relatively stagnant for a long time and therefore inadequate to meet the increasing demand for qualified officers in Turkey. For this reason, the number and capacity of officer schools should be increased, as well as implementing the educational standarts required in order to meet the STCW Convention and MO recommendations. To achieve required standarts in the evaluation process, curriculum frameworks should satisfy the following criteria ;. Maritime colleges and academies should be audited, impartially, according to international standarts. Examiner should be trained for their work and be required to keep their knowledge in line with current practice and relevant professional experience.. It should be recognised by Turkish Administration that the certificate structure embodies in the present national system assumes a traditional departmental organization and hierarchy of tasks, duties and responsibilities abroad ship and alternative job assignments are being developed within the shipping industry, giving rise to need for a more flexible structure of certification.. The teaching staff at Turkish Maritime Institutes consists mostly of teachers that have no academic titles or experience in maritime industry. Due to this fact, Postgraduate Master and Doctor of Philosophy studies should be encourages. There are similar critical problems concerning National Examination Center which is subject to this study, due to educational social» economic, and employment condition. According to the results of this model research for seafarers' examinations :. By taking into account the amendments to STCW Convention (1995), Turkish Maritime Register and Regulations for Seafarers Examinations which was published on March 1,1978 shoul be revised according to international regulations and national needs. xv . National maritime education and training curriculums also should be subject to change by considering regulations above mentioned.. A National Examination Centre and regional examination centers should be set up to conduct and organise the examinations and certification of seafarers.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Su Ürünleri, İşletme, Deniz yolu taşımacılığı, Gemi işletmeciliği, Yeterlilik, Aquatic Products, Business Administration, Sea transportation, Shipping companies, Sufficiency