Şişli İlçesinde Mevcut Yeşil Dokunun İrdelenmesi Ve Yeşil Alan Planlamasına Yönelik Öneriler

Tufanoğlu, Esma
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Bu tezde, açık ve yeşil alanların kentsel doku içinde yok olmak yerine çoğalması ve mekansal sürekliliğinin sağlanması gerekliliği vurgulanarak, Şişli' nin mevcut yeşil dokusu ortaya konmuştur. Kentsel yeşil alan planlaması kapsamında, algılanabilir bir yeşil sistem oluşturulması için neler yapılabileceği araştırılmıştır. Çalışma alanı olarak seçilen Şişli, nüfusu ve sahip olduğu sosyo-ekonomik özellikler ile, yalnızca İstanbul' un değil, Türkiye' nin de en önemli ilçelerinden biridir. Çalışma dört ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, çalışmanın amacı, önemi ve kapsamı açıklandıktan sonra, ikinci bölümde, çalışmaya temel olması amacı ile kentsel açık ve yeşil mekan kavramları üzerinde durulmuştur. Üçüncü bölümde ise, çalışma alanı olarak seçilen Şişli' nin fiziki ve sosyal yapısı belirtilmiştir. Ayrıca, Şişli' nin imar planlan içerisindeki yeşil alan durumu kapsamında, Şişli İlçesi için imar planlarında önerilen ve gerçekleşen yeşil alanlar, alansal olarak tespit edilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, mahalleler düzeyinde ve ilçe bütününde olmak üzere mevcut yeşil alan envanteri oluşturulmuştur. Bu alanlar, niceliksel olarak değerlendirilerek, yeşil alan gereksinimi ve açığı belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, mevcut yeşil alanların niteliksel özellikleri de belirlenerek, etki alanları tespit edilmiştir. Mevcut kent dokusu içinde, yeşil alanların algılanabilir bir sistem oluşturması için, ana ulaşım akslarının aynı zamanda yeşil akslar olarak değerlendirilmesi düşüncesi ile mevcut caddeler yol ağaçlandırmaları bakımından irdelenmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucunda ise, mevcut yeşil alan durumu değerlendirilerek, kentsel yeşil alan planlamasına yönelik öneriler getirilmiştir.
Urbanization and territorial movements of population in Turkey gain speed particularly after the year 1950. An irregular and unplanned settlement due to rapid population growth, immigration and industrialization, caused invasion green tissues, which is already used to be short. This factors in turn caused our cities to become concrete monsters. Urbanization in Turkey is a result of driving force of the rural population. Emigrants who could not find jobs in industry settled on lands outside main built-up areas. Thus, settlements of rural character, made of families from low income groups, have appeared in the cities. With the urbanization and technological improvement our health is under threat of air pollution, noise and lack of recreational spaces. Therefore, open and green spaces plays a crucial role in the urban area, particularly in the constantly changing use of the city center. In our country, it is quite general that the urban developments take place ahead of the urban planning process. Main reason behind this can be stated as, the huge agglomeration of population in big cities as a result of ever increasing migration from the rural areas, unplanned developments arising from irresponsible political approaches, etc. One very important outcome of distorted urbanization is the big destruction on the green areas, and even more the inefficiency of them in the cities, whereas these areas are the main elements effecting the sustainability of the urban ecosystem. Among the green areas, we can mention about squares, pedestrian areas, city parks, recreation areas, cemeteries and others. Green space effect on the flora-faunas, micro climate, ventilation and air cleaning of the city, these areas that are mentioned above also have important weight on the psycho-social development of the citizen. Therefore, the planning and the design of these areas appear to be very important. While comparing with the European cities, the differences on the approach to the concepts of green areas in our cities, appear in an open manner. In that work, existing green areas of Sisli was examined in the frame of green areas have to be generated and survived in an urban area related to their functions. The study contains four chapter except conclusions and suggestions. XI The aim, the content and the importance of this study was explained in the first chapter. In the second chapter of the study was explained definition of urban open and green spaces and importance of green spaces was stressed in the city centers. In the third chapter, physical and social information of Sisli settlement was examined. The historical development of Sisli settlement was also examined from the past until today. In the fourth chapter of this study, existing green areas of Sisli was determined. Green tissue was examined in the existing urban area. In the conclusion, general evaluation of this study was done and the light of experience some proposal was presented. The aim of the study is to examine existing green spaces of Sisli settlement by stressing the importance of green areas have to be generated and survived in urban areas. In this study was also searched that how a continuos green tissue is existed in the Sisli settlement. The urban open spaces planning provides the securing of the spatial and functional order which is formed by the green areas and elements between each other and buildings which are raised in the duration of town developments. Open spaces in the urban areas have hygienic, esthetic, psychological, ecological and economical functions. The urban green spaces improve primarily urban ecological conditions and meet recreational needs of the people. Open spaces plays a important organizational role within such strategies by placing itself, in the constantly changing use of the city centers. The primary significance of open space lies in its circulative function. It connects and accesses the vast concentration of city center programs and offers space to a highly intensive network of routes. Considering the specific character of the center of the city, most of these routes serve very slow-moving traffic. Of a least equal importance is the potential of open space to create measured pauses that relate to specific conditions. These are disruptive moments in which the various characteristics of the city center can be organized and articulated. They are also moments in which open space can lock into the collective domain, allowing the identities of both territories to reinforce each other. Significance of green areas for man's well-being has generally been accepted in developed and developing countries. Urban living with fast vehicles, traffic jams, flashing neon signs, strong colors and concrete surroundings causes constant stress on human behaviors. Whereas vegetation and nature bring relaxation, infuse men with fresh energy and increase concentration that lead to more enjoyable and long life expectancy. In many parts of Turkey, there has been an unprecedented loss of open space to development in recent years, and this loss is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. Human activity is not only reducing the size and number of remaining natural areas but also causing habitat fragmentation, which results in configurations XII or arrangements of these areas that are poorly suited to maintaining ecological function. Creating green areas is difficult problem particularly in city centers. Solutions to these problems involve the integrated development of plans based on social, ecological, technical and economic criteria. By use of the integrated urbanization poles and corridors model concentrated urbanization of the center of the city can be avoided by creating a greenbelt encompassing the city with unwanted expansion of the city similarly prevented. It is essential to create a green way system that makes use of the natural surroundings of the city. Recently, many of the developed countries consider importance of green way. The green way is a 'linear open spaces established along either a natural corridor, such as river front, stream valley, or ridge line, or over land along a railroad right-of-way converted to recreational use, a canal, a scenic road, or other, route' or, 'an open space connector linking parks, nature reserves cultural features, or historic sites, with each other and with populated areas. Developing countries like Turkey, should produce positive and organized policies in order to protect their unique beauties. Stopping irregular and illegal urbanization, arranging the zones where people carry out social and cultural activities and improving relations between such zones would only be provided by proper design. In this thesis, existing green areas of Sisli settlement was examined and also enrolled on map with present name of active green areas However, existing green area system map was prepared. In this map, connection between existing green areas and planted street was determined. Sisli is an important city center in Turkey, not only in Istanbul. Sisli settlement was influenced from urbanization process gain speed after the year 1950 in Turkey. This process was dangerous for open and green areas. Existing green areas were classified as active and passive green areas. Active green areas are parks, playgrounds, and sport areas and passive green areas are graveyards, refuges, and other green areas. As active green areas, 416.240 square meter was determined in Sisli. Existing passive green areas, however, is 628.359 square meter. Total 1.044.599 square meter active and passive green areas was found in Sisli. Harbiye district exists much of active green areas. To have much of active green areas is the reason for that the Demokrasi Park is in this district. Demokrasi Park have an area of 218000 square meter. Zincirlikuyu Cemetery is in Esentepe district. Therefore, much of passive green areas exist in Esentepe district. According to the Turkish Construction Law Number 3194 within municipality boundaries, the green space must be at least 7.0 square meters per individual. However, there are no standards to be valid everywhere, and the standards in use of general character. The need to green areas will increase simply with the increasing population which would pose a great problem to the cities with high population. xm In this study, the green spaces needs on the base of 28 districts within the boundaries of Sisli Municipality according to the standards of Ministry of Construction and Housing was examined. By taking into consideration the census on district bases between years 1985-1990, the distribution of population according to the population was estimated. Parks, playgrounds and sport areas have been grouped as 'Active Green Areas', graveyards, refuge and other green areas have been titled as 'Passive Green Areas'. The size and quality of these areas were determined Furthermore, actual use of these green spaces and their sphere of influence, equipment's and attractiveness were studied. Green tissue was examined in the existing urban area. According to standards of Ministry of Construction and Housing for 5000 inhabitants for 3-10 age group 1,5 square meter per individual is proposed as play lots and grounds. In the construction plan of the Sisli, 247250 square meter 's proposed for playgrounds but an area of 25940 square meter can be realized. In this respects, there is as playgrounds 0.1 square meter per individual. Therefore, an area of 362979 square meter must be added. According to standards of Ministry Of Construction and Housing for 15000 inhabitants one district park and 1.0 square meter per individual is proposed. For Sisli settlement 745870 square meter area is proposed in construction plan. But, an area of 143850 square meter can be realized. Required area of district park is 259279 square meter. Therefore, there is deficit area of 115429 square meter. Furthermore, there is as district park 1.54 square meter per individual. For Sisli settlement, there are proposed areas and their whose size are confirmed with the standards of Ministry and Construction and Housing but they have not been applied. According to standards of Ministry in construction plans for 15000 inhabitants one play and sport field and for 11-18 age group 2.0 square meter is proposed. In construction plan, an area of 51000 square meter is proposed, but 28450 square meter can be realized. Both construction plan and existing sport area are not appropriate according to the standards. The deficit of green spaces was determined by comparing the green space needs which are determined according to the standards of Ministry of Construction and Housing Building inventor of green space of the settlement. In conclusion the suggestions devoted to the green spaces planning and to the most likely emerging problems related green space systems of the Sisli settlement was made. Existing green spaces was also examined according to their sphere of influence in Sisli. In this respect, green areas have not homogeneous dispersion in urban area. Disorganized green spaces take up a position as dispersion in existing urban area. In this study, existing green spaces was examined concerning their qualities. Green areas have not sufficient quantity and their quality are also insufficient. Because of the insufficiency of the parks and playgrounds related to their quality, using this XIV spaces becomes less. The green spaces is insufficient with the regard to function and visual attraction. Creating green areas in existing urban tissue of Sisli settlement can not be possible. Sisli municipality that are unsuccessful in creating the necessary organization, therefore, invest finance in their hand to attractive superstructure. In conclusion, some proposal was presented. For sustainable urban development metropolitan and local municipalities should make new plans and investments to increase the green areas properly and carefully. Open spaces with recreational potential must be evaluated as green areas in revision construction plans and reformation construction plan of Ayazaga. In existing urban area, legal expropriation is not possible for creating green areas. Therefore, some streets can be arranged as pedestrian street. Thus creating new green spaces gets a continue green tissue. However, new safe spaces will be crated for children. Evaluating street as green way will get a continue green tissue. Existing plantation of streets was determined that it is not quality. Therefore, this street must be renovated and supported with refuges, green areas and street trees. For example, campaign of four hundred thousand trees for Istanbul is positive progress. According to some researches, use of green areas density is on the increase after a successful arrangement of these areas. Therefore, revision arrangement must be made for existing active and passive green areas. Thus, improving the green areas will increase their usage. The need to green areas can not be satisfied effectively without environmental consciousness. The economic and social conditions imposed by the illegal and irregular urbanization make the population insensitive for the environment. The governments and municipalities, being obliged to create basis for improving the consciousness, are first degree responsible. In addition to that, the officials of the educational institutions and press are also obliged to improve environmental consciousness. The importance of this consciousness, however, is not given the value it deceivers. The people who settled in the city for a long time, under the pressure of economic and social conditions, invade the green area within the city to build reinforced business centers. This causes the people to loose their environmental consciousness. In Turkey, experts propose seven square meter green area per individual. But, this standard is insufficient according to principals of contemporary urban planning. In addition, basses of dispersion of green areas in urban area so important as quantity of green areas. Therefore, green area system which is based on ecological must be tried to create
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Yeşil alanlar, İstanbul-Şişli, Green areas, İstanbul-Şişli