Vitamin A ve gümüş nanotanecik katkılı cilt maskesi üretimi

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Tarih
2019-06-12
Yazarlar
Kadakal, Tuğçe
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Nanoteknoloji moleküler yapının büyüklüğün 1-100 nm aralığında değiştiği, yapı taşı özelliği olan malzemelerle çalışan geniş bir bilim alanıdır. Nanoyapılar, canlılardaki ya da yapay cihazlardaki malzemelerin en küçük yapay aygıt veya atomların ve en büyük moleküllerin köprülenmesi olarak kabul edilmektedir. Nanoteknolojinin en önemli kullanım alanlarından biri kozmetik sektörüdür. Kullanım amacına göre seçilen biyopolimerler veya nanotanecikler tüketicilerin ilgisini çekmekte ve onlara doğal çözümler sunmaktadır. Piyasadaki nanoteknoloji ürünleri kırışıklık karşıtı, nemlendirici, temizleyici ürünler ve yüz maskelerinde öne çıkmaktadır. Yüz maskeleri kolayca uygulanabilir olması ve anında etki göstermeleri sebebiyle önemli bir kozmetik ürün olarak piyasada yerini almıştır. Kullanım amacına göre uygulanan maskenin cildi derinlemesine nemlendirmesi, sebumu çıkarması ya da cildi gençleştirmesi gibi etkileri olabilir. Maskeler jel, kağıt, soyulabilir ya da yıkanabilir formlarında bulunabilir. Kitosan ve jelatin, nanoteknoloji alanında öne çıkan doğal biyopolimerlerdendir. Kitosan antibakteriyel özelliği ile bilinmektedir. Ayrıca lokal hemostatik aktivitesi sebebiyle makrofajları aktive edebilir ve sitokinleri uyarabilir. Yara iyileşmesi uygulamalarında kullanılabilir. Jelatin toksik değildir ve insan vücudu tarafından üretilen amino asitler olan glisin ve prolin açısından oldukça zengindir. Gümüş nanotanecik birçok çalışmada antibakteriyel olması ile öne çıkmaktadır. A vitamini keratinizasyonu düzenler. Ayrıca, sivilce tedavisinde, kırışıklıkları azaltmada ve cildin UV radyasyonuna karşı korumasını arttırmada etkilidir. Yapılan literatür çalışmaları incelenmiş ve bu çalışmada elektrospinning yöntemi ile çok kullanımlı gümüş nanotanecik ve A vitamini katkılı jelatin/kitosan nanokompozit yüz maskesi üretimi amaçlanmıştır. Gümüş nanotanecik çözünebilir nişasta bazlı sulu çözelti şeklinde mikrodalga ile sentezlenmiştir. Daha sonra Gt, Gt/Ch, Gt/Ch/Ag, Gt/Ch/Ag/1% RP, Gt/Ch/Ag/3% RP, Gt/Ch/Ag/5% RP nanokompozit numuneleri elektrospinning ile sentezlenmiştir. Sentezlenen numuneler gluteraldehit ile çapraz bağlanmıştır. Üretimi gerçekleştirilen nanokompozit liflerin ve çapraz bağlanan liflerin karakterizasyonu Taramalı elektron mikroskobu (SEM), X-ışınları kırınımı analizi (XRD) ve Fourier dönüşümlü kızılötesi spektroskopisi (FTIR) ile incelenmiştir. Ana numuneye XRD analizi yapılmıştır. Elde edilen liflere antibakteriyel aktivitelerini incelemek için antimikrobiyal testler uygulanmıştır. Ayrıca, çapraz bağlanmış numunelerde gümüş iyonu ve vitamin A salımı ölçülmüştür. Çapraz bağlanmış numunelere yapılan antibakteriyel test sonucunda, tüm numunelerde antimikrobiyal etki görülmüştür. Yapılan çalışmalar sonucunda, %5 vitamin A içeren nanokompozit numunenin cilt maskesi üretimi için uygun olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.
Nanotechnology is a large field of science that works with materials that have a building block, where the molecular structure varies in the range of 1-100 nm. Nanostructures are considered to be the smallest artificial devices of materials in living creatures or artificial devices or bridges of atoms and the largest molecules. Nanotechnology is used to synthesize biological components such as proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, DNA, RNA and viruses that form components of cellular structures in the body. As a general concept, nanoscience is the true representation of nature in biological sciences. In other words, the size of many molecular structures in biology is in the range of 1-100 nm. Researching new materials, processes and events on the nanoscale and developing new theoretical and experimental research techniques provide new opportunities for the development of innovative nanoscale issues and nano systems. The properties of materials on a nanoscale may be very different from the properties of the materials found on larger scales. Nanostructures are considered to be the smallest artificial devices of materials in living systems or artificial devices or bridges of atoms and the largest molecules. Nanomaterials that can be classified according to their structure are classified as carbon based, metal based, dendrimers and composites. Carbon-based nanomaterials, due to their unique and exceptional physical, chemical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties, attract great interest in science and engineering. Generally nanoparticles, hollow spheres, ellipsoids, take the shape of layers or tubes. Carbon nanotubes (cylindrical shape) are usually synthesized by arc discharge or graphite's chemical vapor deposition. Carbon nanotubes are considered to be the most robust and hardest materials when it comes to the rigidity and flexibility module. The chain of unbroken covalent carbon-carbon bonds makes them extremely strong materials. Graphene is an atomic thickness carbon layer in a two-dimensional hexagonal cage with excellent thermal and electrical conductivity combined with infrared and visible optical transparency. Moreover, it is a very attractive option for various applications due to its robust yet highly flexible property capable of bonding other elements of graphene (eg, gases and metals) One of the most important uses of nanotechnology is the cosmetics industry. Biopolymers or nanoparticles, which are selected according to their intended purpose, attract consumers' attention and offer them natural solutions. Nanotechnology products on the market are prominent in anti-wrinkle, moisturizing, cleansing products and face masks. Face masks have been placed on the market as an important cosmetic product because they can be applied easily and show in an instant effect. Depending on the intended use, the mask may have effects such as deep moisturizing, removing sebum or giving a youthfull appearance. Masks can be found in gel, paper, peelable or washable forms. Biopolymers or biopolymers are macromolecules derived or produced from natural sources and living organisms. Generally biopolymers; polymers produced by biological systems such as microorganisms, plants and animals, and polymers derived from biological starting materials, such as amino acids, sugars, natural oils or oils, which are synthesized chemically. Agricultural oils can be used as a cheap carbon source to produce different types of biopolymers. Cereal grains such as corn, sorghum and rice are also a rich source of biopolymers. A wide variety of biopolymers such as polysaccharides, polyesters and polyamides are naturally produced by various microorganisms. In addition, it has been determined that the fossils of plant residues, seed, pollen, cuticle and plant wastes are highly resistant biopolymers. Natural biopolymers have biocompatibility, low toxicity properties and high functional group content. Most materials that occur in nature during the life cycles of green plants, animals, bacteria and fungi are polymer or polymer matrix composites. Synthetic polymers are chemically synthesized polymers, as opposed to natural polymers. The synthesized polymers have a high degree of purity because they are produced in a controlled manner. This purity is an important factor for their use in pharmaceutical formulations. Compared to biologically derived materials, synthetic polymers have several advantages and disadvantages. Since they do not need to be removed from the animal tissue, they have a lower risk of contamination and immunological reaction. Physical and chemical properties can be better controlled. On the other hand, synthetic materials generally do not activate specific cellular receptors and therefore do not elicit their desired cellular responses, such as axonal growth or cell migration. Chitosan and gelatin are important natural biopolymers in nanotechnology. Chitosan is known for its antibacterial properties. Due to its local hemostatic activity, chitosan can activate macrophages and stimulate cytokines. Thus, it can be used in wound healing applications. Gelatin is non-toxic and is rich in glycine and proline, the amino acids produced by the human body. Silver nanoparticles are prominent in many studies with their antibacterial properties. Vitamin A regulates keratinization. It is also effective in treating acne, reducing wrinkles and improving skin protection against UV radiation. The skin is the largest organ in the body and prevents microbes from entering the body. Therefore, skin health is an important aspect of personal health. There has not been a standard classification of facial skin types to date. In the 1900s, Helena Rubinstein identified four basic skin types, and this information was used by the cosmetic industry for many years. In 2008, Leslie Baumann classified an innovative approach to classify skin into 16 more functional types, classifying facial skin types according to some dry or oily, sensitive or resistant, pigmented or non-pigmented and wrinkled or wrinkled properties. Unlike conventional spinning techniques (wet spinning, dry spinnig, melt spinng, gel spinning) that can produce polymer fibers with diameters up to micrometers, electrospinning is a process capable of producing polymer fibers in the nanometer diameter range. A high-voltage electric field is used to form solid fibers from a polymeric stream (solution or melt) delivered from a millimeter-sized nozzle. Nano fibers are ultra-thin solid fibers with very small diameters (less than 100 nm), large surface area per unit mass and small pore size. Because of the natural properties of the electrospinnation process, which can control the accumulation of polymer fibers onto a target substrate, nano fibers having complex and continuous three-dimensional shapes can be formed. Although the electrospinning process has been known for almost 70 years and the first patent was given to Formhals in 1934, the polymeric nano fibers produced by electrospinning have started to attract great interest over the last few years. In the early 1990s, Reneker and Chun were interested in this technology, and in 1996 a variety of polymer solutions were spun. In this study, it was aimed to produce multi-use silver nanoparticles and vitamin A supplemented gelatin / chitosan nanocomposite face mask by electrospinning method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in the form of a soluble starch-based aqueous solution with microwave. Then Gt, Gt/Ch, Gt/Ch/Ag, Gt/Ch/Ag/1% RP, Gt/Ch/Ag/3% RP, Gt/Ch/Ag/5% RP nanocomposite samples were synthesized by electrospinning. The synthesized samples were cross-linked with gluteraldehyde. Characterization of produced nanocomposite fibers and crosslinked fibers was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD analysis was performed on the main sample. The antimicrobial tests were performed to examine the antibacterial activity of the fibers obtained. In addition, silver ion and vitamin A release were measured in cross-linked samples. As a result of the antibacterial test on cross-linked samples, antimicrobial effect was observed in all samples. As a result of these studies, it was concluded that 5% vitamin A containing nanocomposite sample is suitable for skin mask production.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans)-- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2019
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2019
Anahtar kelimeler
A Vitamini, Nanoparçacıklar, Nanoteknoloji, Biyopolimerler, Kozmetikler, Cilt maskesi, Vitamin A, Nanoparticles, Nanotechnology, Biopolymers, Cosmetics, Skin mask
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