Çağdaş Yönetimsel Yaklaşımlar Ve Bu Yaklaşımların Yapı Sektöründe Kullanım Olanakları

Sabaz, M. Burak
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Günümüz rekabet koşullarında yönetim kavramı önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Firmaların faaliyetlerini sürdürebilmeleri için kendilerini sürekli olarak gelişime açık, dinamik geniş görüşlü değişimlere uyum gösterebilen bir yapıda tutmaları gerekir. Gelişen dünya düzeni içinde eski yönetim prensiplerinin yerini yeni yönetim yaklaşımlarına bırakması doğaldır. Bu tezin kapsamında yeni yönetim yaklaşımlarından Toplam Kalite Yönetimi, Tam Zamanında Üretim Yönetimi ve Değişim Mühendisliği tanıtılacaktır. Bu konular tezde iki kısımda incelenmiştir. Birinci bölümden beşinci bölüme kadar bu yönetim yaklaşımlarının endüstri devriminden bu yana gelişmesi, yaklaşımların tarifi, sağladığı faydalar gibi konular incelenmiştir. Altına bölümden sonra ise, inşaat sektörü, bu sektörde faaliyet gösteren firmalar, bu firmaların inşaat faaliyetlerini sürdürürken oluşturdukları organizasyonlar anlatılmaktadır. Sonuç olarakta bu yaklaşımların inşaat sektöründeki uygulanabilirlikleri incelenmiştir.
The name of this thesis is "Contemporary Management Approaches and Possibilities of Use of these Approaches in Construction Sector". The purpose of this thesis are to give examples to the contemporary management approaches arised under competition conditions within new world order in current days we have participated in Customs Union, to introduce them, to provide information about their benefits and to put forward the extent to which construction sector, one of most important sectors in Turkey, may benefit from these contemporary management approaches under current conditions. The investigation was handled in two parts. In the first part, Total Quality Management, Just In Time (JIT) Manufacturing and Reengineering, which are referred to as contemporary management approaches, are introduced. In the second part, application possibilities of all these management approaches in the construction sector are handled. In the first part the explanation of contemporary management approaches was initiated by describing the cycles lived hitherto from the emerging of management. The requirement of management arising simultaneously with industrial revolution was first examined by Taylor in scientific terms and the rules suggested by him were maintained up to now by some additions. At initial periods of industrial revolution, production competition was almost absent between companies because of the magnitude of consumer market. Subsequently a competition environment based on production superiority was maintained up to 1960's. Thereafter cost item has become an important criter for competition up to 1970's. In 1980's, competition was replaced by quality which was not important up to that time. In 1990's, speed of production has become an important component. Today' consumers wish to purchase cheapest, fastest and quality product or service. While such developments occur in the world, also some advancements were noted in the field of management. Taylor period's management concept, called as viii management concept of industrial period, was shaded by new management concepts arising due to elevation of education level of people, levels and standards of culture and forces of competition environment. Because companies which are open to innovations and which accommodate rapidly to new world conditions can stand only in a global world. Moreover new concepts have took place in this section. These concepts will be beneficial in the explanation of contemporary management approaches. Management is described as arrangement of association of human and source factors towards certain goals. Quality is all the characteristics which prove capability of a commodity or service to meet a certain requirement. Quality Control is described to be the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for quality. Quality Assurance is described as all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. The most widespread one among contemporary management approaches within the scope of this thesis is total quality management. This management approach was first suggested by Dr. Armand V. Feigenbaum in 1950's. TQM was started to be implemented in Japan of post-second world war and gained a huge success. TQM aims the implementation of quality control concept at all levels of all kinds of production or service sector by paying attention to customer satisfaction in a way to provide continuos development. The most comprehensive definition of TQM was made by Japanese Industry Standards. According to this definition TQM means the decisive application of quality control by everybody in the company including top level managers, managers, chiefs, employees. This application is carried out by cooperating in all fields of activities of company like market research and development, product planning, design, production planning, purchasing, sale, manufacturing, inspection, after sale services, accounting, personnel, education and is called as Company-Wide Quality Control or Total Quality Control [ 9, Sf: 42] IX Another management approach is JIT manufacturing. JIT manufacturing was suggested by Taichi Ohno, the chairman of Toyota Motor Enterprises in 1940's in Japan. The basic goal of this management approach was specified to be zero inventory and zero fault. So all kinds of activity which does not add directly value on customer, service or product must be decreased to possible minimum degree. One definition made on the subject is as follows: JIT manufacturing is a Japanese management philosophy applied in manufacturing which involves having the right items of the right quality and quantity in the right place and at the right time. JIT manufacturing can not be considered on its own separate from TQM. These approaches are targeted to the same goals and complementary to each other and have to be applied during all the activities. The third approach Reengineering can be implemented only company which has a huge problem that requires a radical change. Like previous two approaches, this approach suggests development by great and comprehensive changes, instead of advancement by continous and small attempts. Customer satisfaction, fastest, cheapest, quality service or production are goals of Reengineering. But ways of reaching to these goals are different. Reengineering focuses on the way by which the works are carried out instead of the way by which organization of company is made. Because according to Reengineering, reaching to sufficient success is not possible if the process followed is wrong whatever the efforts made for quality production. Reengineering has emerged in accordance to the point of view that the management approach of industrial period has lost its function. Reengineering is based on creation of value for process and customer instead of work design, hierarchic management or specialization of labor force. An exact definition of Reengineering is as follows: "Reengineering means basic reconsideration and redical redesigning of work processes in order to provide outstanding developments in fastest performance criterion of our era like cost, quality, service and speed". [ 11, Sf : 29 ]. In the light of these explanations it was concluded that all of these management approaches are in essence based on simple fact: in today's world satisfaction of consumer / customer precedes everything and all possible efforts must be made to rech to success. Only one of above stated management approaches is not sufficient to reach to success. TQM and JIT manufacturing must be implemented continuously. At the same time all the company must be inspected through eyes of a Reengineering implementer. When TQM and JIT approaches proved insufficient or solution does not seem possible via simple arrangements, it is time to implement Reengineering. In the second part of thesis, possibilities of use of above introduced management approaches in construction sector were searched out. During the investigation of this subject, concept of construction, construction sector, respective part of the sector within the economy of Turkey and other industrial branches which contribute to the sector were mentioned about. Subsequently differences between construction and production sectors were investigated. Thus ways of use of approaches like TQM, JIT manufacturing and reengineering in construction sector, which approaches are extensively implemented in the production sector, were compared. During the investigation of possibilities of use of TQM in construction sector, it was determined that quality concept was not sufficiently adopted by small enterprises despite it was adopted by large companies of the sector due to effects of competition environment. On the subject it was seen that the deficiency of quality concept in such small enterprises especially making production in the construction sector has proven a substantial effect over faulty urbanization of the country. Anyway the improvement of this situation is not possible by present control and license systems. Systems available abroad in connection to this subject were examined and a general proposal was brought within the scope of thesis. To take a step in relation to faulty urbanization is possible only by leaving the current system and implementing a new form of proposed system which is adopted to Turkey. Furthermore it was determined that in order to implement TQM as in the production sector, the components required by TQM have to be fulfilled at all stages of construction process. All included in the overall process like marketing division, design division, engineering division, production division, purchasing division and secondary industrial branches must make efforts to maintain quality. XI While examining possibilities of use of JIT manufacturing in construction sector, it was observed that it was possible as much as TQM. TQM, elimination of extravagance and contribution of employees are seen as basic components of JIT manufacturing. The most important subject to be handled here is elimination of extravagance. Companies which are engaged in activities in connection to construction sector were also examined according to their respective customer populations for which they make production. Because the most important component of these approaches is customer satisfaction. In result of investigation it was seen that one part of companies in the construction sector are companies making production for an unknown market and some other part are companies making production dependent on related orders. The biggest difference between these two groups of companies is the presence of a certain real person or legal entity customers for companies making production in dependance to orders. In such a case customer suggests its expectations, conditions and standards at the very beginning of project. Thus as in the case of companies making production for an unknown market, many investigations like market researches and determination of customer expectations become unnecessary. Moreover JIT manufacturing requires timely production. That is to say, making of production commences by respective demand of customer. Making production without order of customer can be reasonable only in case that an excessively demanded product is manufactured and immediately sold at a very suitable place. Otherwise the production made have to be stored until buyers can be found. Inventories are die leading extravagance component according to JIT manufacturing which targets to eliminate this. Especially in the construction sector, cost of product is so much. To make such an investment priorly and men waiting for sales will bring additional cost to product. In this point of view the companies which make production upon orders are more susceptible to implement JIT manufacturing. Due to developing requirements and technology, the size and scope of construction projects have extremely largened. Project managers which emerged in this scope have come to the position to play substantially important roles in regard to Reengineering intensifying on process control. xu Moreover within the scope of Reengineering, radical changes to be made in the process independently from the control of process are important. In result of a research conducted it was determined that making of construction projects as per the viewpoint of last planners like construction foramen's who take part at the last stage of implementation or design squad leader would provide bigger contribution to planning than traditional managers. In conclusion biggest responsibility to reach to success in the construction sector pertains to managers. They are obliged to become open to changes and to have a comprehensive point of view by knowing about all these and similar contemporary management approaches. Only in this way they can direct persons under their management in the correct way and create possibility of implementation for such approaches. Otherwise the efforts of low rank employees prove insufficient in the absence of their support.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Kalite güvence sistemi, Tam zamanında üretim, Toplam kalite yönetimi, ; İnşaat endüstrisi, Quality assurance system, Just in time production, Total quality management, Construction industry