Stratejik Planlama Ve Ürün Stratejisi

Taşkıran, Meltem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Stratejik planlama dünyada ve ülkemizde yeni uygulanan bir kavramdır. Burada önemli olan, strateji kelimesinin doğru olarak tanımlanmasıdır. Bu tezde de, strateji kavramının diğer benzer kavramlardan farklılıkları ve benzerlikleri incelenmiştir. Latince'de çizgi-yol anlamına gelen strateji kavramı günümüzde işletme için, uzun süreli temel amaçların belirlenmesi ve gerekli kaynakların bu amaçlar doğrultusuda kullanılmasına giden yollar şeklinde tanımlanmaktadır. Birinci bölümde strateji kavramı açıklanmakta, askeri bir kavram olarak ve işletme yönetimi açısından önemi belirtilmektedir. Ayrıca stratejinin kendisi ile aynı anlamda kullanılan kavramlarla ilişkileri belirlenmektedir. (Plan - Politika - Taktik - Yöntem vs.) Amaçlara göre strateji yönetim konusu da aynı bölümde incelenmekte, amaçların belirlenmesi, örgüt misyonu dış çevre ilişkileri araştırılmaktadır. İkinci bölümde ise Üretim ve işlem (P/OM) stratejileri ve stratejik kararlar ele alınmaktadır. Burada sistemler, altsistemler Tows analizi gibi strateji geliştirme yöntemlerinden bahsedilmektedir. Stratejik karar bölümiendirme sistemleri ve taktik kararların özellikleri ve ilişkileri de açıklanmaktadır. Bir ürünün icadından, piyasaya girişine kadar süren mamul hayatını kapsayan ürün strateji yöntemleri, mamul üretim politikaları da aynı bölümde incelenmektedir. Mamul hayat eğrisinde önemli bir rolü olan imalatta bilgisayar kullanımı ve bilgisayarla dizayn konulan da aynı bölümde ayrıntılı olarak ele alınmıştır.
In this chapter, we discussed production productivity and the production/operation manager's action in the firm. The operations manager are more effective when they operate a P/OM function that supports the firm. In this chapter, we are discussing the idea of systems, strategy development process, P/OM strategy and the product strategies. A) Developing the strategies 1. Systems: Viewing the enterprise as a system provides a way of seeing the organisation within its environment. It helps developing an effective P/OM mission that contribute to the organisation's strategy. A system is an aggregation of interacting variables. Operation manager has to design a system to achieve a particular objective. Transformation system converts inputs into goods and services. The transformation systems are: I. Economy II. The firms III. The production function Those systems have; I. Inputs II. Transformation III. Outputs vin 2. Strategy development process: First, we seek to identify opportunities in the economic system. This purpose is the system's reason for being, that is, it's mission. We must achive missions via strategies. A strategy is a plan designed for achieving a mission. The mission, or purpose, of an organisation is; I. Reason for the firm's existence ii. Society should endorse the allocation of resources to the organisation III. The value will be created for the costumer. The tows concept looks at Threats and Opportunities in the environment and looks at the weaknesses and strengths of the firm itself. The treats and opportunities may exist in a number of environmental variables. The environmental variables to include: I. Cultural II. Demographic III. Economic IV. Political - legal V. Technological VI. Publics The publics of a firm include: I. Investors, creditors and bankers (sources of capital) II. Suppliers (sources of raw material) III. Costumers and distributors. IX 3. Developing a P/OM strategy: In this case, we discuss how the production function can contribute to competitive advantage for the organisation. The specific strategy opportunities for the P/OM function are numerous and include positioning P/OM resources for: I. Product capability II. Costumisation requirements III. Speed of delivery IV. Numerous options V. Product quality VI. Low - cost production VII. Incorporation of state-of-art technology VIII. Reliability in meeting delivery schedules IX. Spare part and service availability A successful P/OM strategy is consistent with: I. Environmental demands II. Competitive demands lii. Company strategy İV. Product life cycle Strategic decisions of operation management are: I. Product strategy II. Process strategy III. Location strategy İV. Layout strategy V. Human resource strategy VI. Just-in-time strategy. Tactical decisions of P/OM are: I. Inventory and just-in-time tactics II. Scheduling tactics III. Quality tactics IV. Reliability and maintenance tactics B) Product strategy Product startegy is the selection, definition and design of products. The production function itself should have available: I. Managerial ability II. Technological skills III. Financial resources İV. Human resources 1. Generation of product opportunities: I. Economic change II. Sociological and demographic change Hi. Technological change İV. Political change V. Others 2. Product life: Products are born, live and die. The general phases of product life cycle are depicted in Figure 1. a) Introduction: I. Product design II. Process design changes III. Overcapacity İV. Short production runs V. High costs VI. Limited models b) Growth: Product and process reliability Increase capacity Competitive products improvements XI Figure 1 : Product Life Cycle. Sales/Costs Profit ; Cost of j I developement Sales revenue INTRODUCTION GROWTH ! MATURITY Net revenue DECLINE FIGURE 2: Sales / Costs & The Profit (Product Life Cycle) Xll c) Maturity: I. Standardisation II. Optimum capacity III. Long production runs IV. Competitive costs become critical V. More minor annual model changes C) Product development The best approach seems to be a formal team approach. Such teams are: I.. Product development teams II. Design for manufacturability teams III. Value engineering teams IV. Value analysis teams Successful product development teams have: I. Support to top management II. Experienced leadership III. Formal organisation of group İV. Training programs and teach the new techniques V. Cooperative team 1. Product development teams: Such teams often include marketing, manufactoring, purchasing, quality and service personel. 2. Design for manufacturability and valur engineering teams: This includes marketability, manufacturability and serviceability. They have a somewhat narrower charge. These include: I. Fewer parts II. Standardisation III. Improved job design İV. Improved job safety V. Quality robust design XIII D) Defining and documenting the product 1. Make a buy 2. Group technology Successful implementation of group technology leads to: I. Improved design II. Reduced raw material III. Simplified production planning IV. Improved routing and machine loading V. Reduced tooling set-up time 3. Computer-aided design (CAD) and Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM): The organisations where CAD is used, a design engineer starts by developing a rough sketch or can conceivably, just an idea. CAD also allows the designer to ensure that parts fit togather so there will be no interferences when parts are subsequently assembled. The CAD system, though a library of symbols and details, also helps to ensure adherence to the drafting standarts. We have the integration of computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Benefits of CAD and CAM I. Product quality li. Shorter design time III. Database availability IV. New range of capabilities V. Production costs reductions E) Strategic management Strategic management is an organisational process, and requires an integrated performance by all members of the organisation for successful completition. Members of an organisation have to able to report quickly, XIV clearly and concisely to other members on the portion of the strategic management process assigned to them. Selected Strategy Marketing management Marketing Research Operations management s i Financial management / Tasks required Relationships among tasks Product development Information services Personel services for success Persons available for tasks Strategic management is concerned with the definition of major goals and objectives for an organisation. 1. Environmental characteristics and trends: I. Economical assumptions II. Technological assumptions ill. Social assumptions IV. Political assumptions V. Competitive assumptions 2. Organisational resources: I. Financial II. Physical III. Managerial İV. Positional F) Strategic management and planning Each strategy, or long term method of competition, imposes certain tasks, or managerial activities, that have to be done well for the strategy to be successful. The tasks can be in the functional management areas (marketing, production, finance, or engineering), the technical support services (cost control, information processing, market research etc.), or in the startegic directive decisions, and they may be routine or critical in nature. The function of the planning system is to produce an improved future state for an organisation, but the procedures to accomplish this objective are complex since they must anticipate the future consequences of the plans, XV must integrate the different levels of the process. These requirements are critical in the design of the overall planning system, and should be described more fully. I. Need to anticipate the future consequences of planning II. Need to integrate the different levels of planning III. Need to regulate the personnal interactions of planning G) Strategy matrix Figure 3: Strategy Matrix 1. The firm's strenghts I. Capital requirements il. Management ability III. Performance İV. Profitability V. Capacity VI. Productivity VII. Technical competitence Vlli. Market positions 2. Environmental opportunities/threats I. Cultural II. Demographics III. Economics IV. Political V. Technological VI. Public behavior 3. Competitive situation analysis I. Understand the environment II. Understand the expectations of the public III. Identify critical factors in the industry IV. Identify the strategic issues company should address V. Identify the weaknesses of the company XVI H) Company strategies 3. Production and operations I. Product (Standardised) II. Process (Technology) III. Location (Supplier and costumer's places) İV. Layout (Assembly line) V. Human resources (Enriched or specialised jobs) VI. Quality (Quality standards) Vli. Reliability and maintenance (Repair as required)
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Stratejik planlama; Ürün stratejisi, Strategic planning ;Product strategy