Dokuma Kumaştan Klasik Erkek Ceketi Üretiminde Gerçekleştirilen Optimizasyon Çalışmaları

Çiftok, Pınar
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Sanayimizin önemli bir kanadını oluşturan konfeksiyon fabrikalarının; ekonomideki yavaş büyüme, tüketicilerin taleplerindeki değişim gibi birçok problemi vardır. Bu sebeple firmaların gelecek için hedefleri olmalı ve sanayinin bünyesini güçlendirmek için emin adımlarla bu hedeflere doğru ilerlemelidirler. Günümüzde sürekli değişen talepleri karşılayabilmek için merkezi idareyi sağlamak zorlaşmakta ve çalışanların zihinsel tatminlerini sağlamak için insanlığa saygılı bir sistem istenmektedir. Bu çalışmanın ilk bölümünde hazır giyimde proses kontrol, plan lama ve verimlilik hakkında açıklayıcı bilgiler verilmiş, ikinci bölümde do kuma kumaştan klasik erkek ceketi üretimi anlatılmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde inceleme yapılan firmada gerçekleşen geliştirme çalışmaları açıklanmış ve sonuçlarına değinilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, yapılan çalışmaların etkinliği değerlendirilmiş, bu konuyla ilgili önerilere yer verilmiştir.
Clothing is used not- simply to provide a micro-climate for the wearer's body, but also to conceal the body and reveal its wearer's status and personality to others. To satisfy this concealing and revealing process diverse kinds of clothing are used. The control process in clothing manufacture is sewing, which subordinates cutting, fusing and pressing to its demands. The sewing machine is the typical item of production equipment in a clothing factory, but the sewing machine is no more than a power operated needle with other mechanisms in synchronisation, which produces a series of stitches continuously. All the rest is left to the operator. The operator controls the shape of the sewing line and hence the shapes of the finished garment, the fitting of one ply against another, the speed of stitch formation. In adition, the operator must interpret instructions on a work ticket about different styles, and be able to judge quality during and after the operation. Thus, apart from perhaps 5-10 percent of operations where some form of automatic machine can be used, operations in clothing manufacture are largely operator-controlled. The same conditions, in different ways, apply to pressing, but less to cutting. The operator using a sewing machine produces low added value, because the operator is limited to using only one machine. In addition the machine's output is limited by the practical mechanical constraints of stitch formation, as well as the machine speed the operator can effectively use, especially on short bursts of sewing. Even this is not nearly as significant as the fact that, however sophisticated the engineering of stitch formation, its technology occupies only about one-fifth of the time of the average sewing operation. The other four-fifths of the time are occupied in activities such as preparing the fabric to be sewn, trimming, folding, creasing, marking, disposal after sewing and bundling. In VUl fact these are the care of the typical sewing operation, and they have not yet in general been mechanised. A basic theme of the clothing industry is fashion, resulting in much variety and frequency of change. A permutation of the number of styles, sizes and fabrics per season in one factory may easly produce a total of several thousand items. If it were possible to imagine a factory output of one style, one size and one fabric, it is more likely that the problems of mechanisation would have been solved in spite of the physical difficulties. The feedback of information which controls fashion, price, volume of output and quality standards is primarily the rate of consumer purchasing. The information flow on fashion, price and volume is relatively rapid to the garment manufacturer, and thence to the textile and fibrie stages, according to the length of the garment manufacturer's planning cycle. The clothing industry is a fashion industry, largely an industry of small production units, which have the necessary flexibilty to meet the inherent demands for change. Although the period of production is short, the world of the technologist and engineer provides the specialization of people and manufacturing process, and demand a much larger commitment of time and capital, which together require reliability in the market leading to its control. Productivity embraces not just the operational sides of manufacturing industry, but a wide spread of activities such as distribution costs and the effective use, not merely of fixed capital but, perhaps more importantly, working capital. If we are to understand the parameters which influence productivity we have to move away from the narrow popular view in which productivity is usually equated with labour productivity. It is better to think of productivity as a relation between total input and total output. Then, the objective of maximizing productivity becomes another way of looking at the goal of minimizing the costs of producing a given output. Prodctivity must be recognized as depending on the optimal combination of resources,which must include even money resources through investment policies. IX Uncertainties about output rates leave a company unsure about how much output it will have to sell, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the resources it allocates to the total marketing activities. As a result, distribution channels become periodically under-utilized, or final buyers lower what they will pay for the product because of the uncertainty of delivery. Unexpected brief disruption of production are particularly hard on the stability of company cash flows, because all costs are fixed in the short term. The control which makes or breaks a company's delivery schedula is the marrying of fabric and trimmings deliveries to available production capacity at the right time. Delivery on time represents the most important service the company offers to its customers The production planning and control department collects and gives out information and decision to other departments in a clothing manufacturing company: design, marketing, buying, manufacturing, personnel and cost accounts. During the operation of the plan, production planning and control will inform marketing regularly on actual production against the plan, in detail so that it may schedule delivers to customers, and overall so that the company may adapt its production plans in the face of under or over production. In relation to manufacturing the department of the industrial engineering determines the making time for all styles and calculates the capacity of the sewing rooms, in garment units or standart time, to provide marketing with its estimate of available production and to assess labour requirements. Standard times and material estimates are provided for all styles so that direct costs can be calculated. The most important factor in determining both quality and productivity is, the systems approach to manufacturing. In this approach, the design and control of the process takes account of the whole process from the material input to the finished product output. It seems that the introduction of systems integration is, for many companies, the key to survival in the next decade or so. The way to increase the cost-effectiveness of manufacturing is primarily by increasing manufacturing productivity. Such increase can come only through the improvement of manufacturing. In the old way to manage, the manager is expected to de fine clear responsibilities for all the people, according to their place on the organization chart, and to give them targets for their individual performance, rewarding them accordingly. In the new way the manager focuses attention on the systems, practises, procedures and protocols, in other words, the system as a whole. The challenge is to develop a sense of teamwork and to find ways to improve the processes whereby work qets done. In the new way to manage, improvement is a way of life. When the phrase "quality management" is used, too many people think at once of statistical quality control or even worse, the inspection of mass produced products to see that the bad stuff does not reach the customers. In many companies there is a belief that, because their employees are not involved in repetitive work, there is no use in trying to apply quality management techniques. Quality management encompasses much more than statistics; it is a style of management which treats quality as a "means" not an "end'1. Quality management uses the rule, "quality is never your problem, quality is the solution to your problems." According to this rule, whenever there is a problem, the manager should examine how the work is being done and concentrate attention on the improvement of each and every process associated with the work. Under the new way to manage, the bosses are expected to be much more humane in their approach. One of the most important new skills manager need to develop is the ability to examine how work gets done and how to improve it. Today is the era of the knowledge workers whose output is not physical item, but rather an intellectual product. The processes they use are not so easily seen by those without the proper training. In the first part of this study, information about process control, planning and productivity is given. In the second part, XI production of the men's, jackets of wowen fabric is explained. In the third part, improvement studies in a mill and their results can be read. To summarise, many ways of improvement in the production of the garments must be done in managerial revolution to take a place in the world economy.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Ceket, Dokuma kumaşla, Erkek giysileri, Jacket, Woven fabrics, Man clothes