Şehirsel Yerleşmelerde Açık Ortak Kullanım Alanlarının Değişimi Bahçeşehir-kuzguncuk Örnekleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma

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Tarih
1995
Yazarlar
Yüksel, Şebnem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Yerleşmelerde 19. Yüzyıl sonlarında hızlanan kentleşme süreci sonucu, işlevsel, ekonomik, sosyo-kültürel yapıdaki ve ulaşım sistemlerindeki gelişme ve değişmeler; doğal ve yapay çevrenin bozulmasına, fiziki ve toplumsal çevrede görülen sorunlar ise fiziki mekanı da etkileyerek, yeni çözüm arayışları ile yeni kentsel yerleşmelerin oluşmasına neden olmuştur. Sağlıksızlaşan çevrelere alternatif olarak, kullanıcılarının sosyo-kültürel yapısını, değer yargılarını ve ihtiyaçlarını tanımadan sadece ekonomik kaygılarla üretilerek, kullanıcıya hazır olarak sunulan yeni kentsel yerleşmelerin; hem fiziki ve sosyal yapıdan oluşan çevre kalitesi, hem de ortak mekanları oluşturan açık kullanım alanlarından memnunluk seviyesi, eski- tarihi kentsel yerleşmelere göre daha düşük olmaktadır. Bu çalışmada; 19. Yüzyıl sonrasında hızlı kentleşme süreci ile gelinen yeni kent uygulamalarının, eski-tarihi kentsel yerleşmelerle, Bahçeşehir ve Kuzguncuk örnekleri kullanılarak karşılaştırılması, değişen mekan ölçeğinin ortaya konulması ve kullanıcının açık ortak kullanım alanlarını değerlendirmesi sonucunda, yaşamak istediği, mutlu ve huzurlu olduğu ortamların tarifinin belirlenmesi yolları araştırılmıştır. Araştırmada birtakım varsayımlar öne sürülmüş, belirlenmiş olan iki yerleşim bölgesindeki fiziki ve sosyal yapıyı, kullanıcının açık ortak kullanım alanları ile ilgili değer yargılarını veren anketler ve yerleşme yapısını çözümleyen yerinde yapılan gözlemlerden elde edilen bilgiler ile ulaşılan sonuçlar değerlendirilmiş ve başta ortaya konulmuş olan varsayımların doğrulukları irdelenmiştir.
Since in ancient history, in different times, human communities had constituted different settlement types depend on production-consumption relationships, technology structure and economical, social and cultural structure features. In the end of 19th century great differenttation of structure in urban settlements which influenced by Industrial Revulation, had affected and changed physical space and caused a new order. In the end of 19th century, result of fast urbanization and industrilization process and developments and changes in functional, economical, social and cultural structure had caused deterioration of natural and mad-made environment and negativeness in pysical and social environment. Differentation of structure in towns and deterioration in environment conditions had played a role finding new solution and constituting new urban settlement. The alternative position to the unhealty environments; there are lots of negativeness at the new settlements presented to users which produced without knowing their social understandings, social cultural structures and their needs. In new urban settlements, environment quality which constituted physical and social structure and satisfaction level of user's in public-open-spaces are lower than ancient-historical urban settlement samples In this thesis a method is followed which exposes changes in public-open- space in settlements and which goes from whole urban planning to urban design. In this thesis a result of new town construction with fast urban process in 19th century, comparison of ancient historical urban settlements, exposion of changing space elements and user's evaluation of pubic-open-space environment that user's want to live happy in tried to descripe. In this research changes in public-open- space in urban settlements studied with Bahçeşehir and Kuzguncuk settlement samples. Hypothesis about these sample settlements studied and evaluated with questionairs and observations. The master thesis comprises and introduction which is followed by five seperate parts, each of them being devided in two sections. The importance of the subject dealt with in the master thesis and its aim are emphasised in the introduction In the second part, of the end of 19th century, structural differentiation in urban sattlements and its influence in the world scale was studied. Developments and changes as a result of differentiation in functional areas, transportation systems, economical, social and cultural structure of urban settlements are explained. These differentiation created environmental problems in new settlements and its close environment the solution these environmental problems, developed satellite-new towns samples studied. In addition in this part garden city idea which was one of the city model in 19th century began to apply after the 2nd World War in the new towns. In the third part, changes and developments are seen in urban settlement and their close environments in Turkey which parallel to developments in the World and Istanbul is given as an sample. In this part, in the Turkish urban settlements differentiation; on transportation systems, on demographical, social, economical and urbanization acts reflected to the physical site and in that process placement of Istanbul is explained. The problems came out on urban settlements and their environments in Turkey too as same as, in the world, and these problems solved by mass housing aplications which close to the urban settlements and the new city called Bahçeşehir mass housing in Turkey is examined. In the fourth part, in the public-open- spaces at Bahçeşehir and Kuzguncuk settlements are compared in Istanbul Metropolis. Two different settlements are evaluated by the questionair and observations. First of all, social- cultural, economical structure features are exposed on Bahçeşehir and Kuzguncuk. After that physical features of two urban settlements are determined. Finally, the character of equipments in the public-open- spaces and users' s social understandings are determined. Thus hypothesis and criterions on the new settlement and the ancient historical urban settlements are evaluated at the introduction of the research. In the fifth part, a feneral estimation of the mastar thesis is made. The results came out during researchs and personal proposals about subject are given placed. The results at the final part of thesis are proving the hypothesis at the introduction. Environment quality at the new urban settlements is lower than ancient-historical urban settlements. The elements made up environment quality are listed beleow on two title; * Physical environment: (general apperance, architectural variation-richness, environment identity, aesthetical beauty, transportation, density, city furniture, noise, polution, city image, colour etc.). * Social environment : (neighbourhood- friendship relation, social-cultural values, social- economic statute, quality, social homogeneaus etc ). Generally, at the new urban settlements the physical and social environments are not created together, physically they are possitive but psycohological-social they are negative. However physical environment been formed on user's social cultural structure created together social environment, by that users satisfaction level is beeing high, because of quality of the environment. Also, the progress below effected user's satisfaction level on public-open-spaces. When, the public-open-spaces at the ancient-historical settlements are compared to the samples of new urban settlements; the ancient-historical settlements are more reflected on human social understandings, not monotonous, organic, higher city identity, legibility and more positive on social relationships. See the pattern which shows the criterions examined during thesis and environment quality at two settlements. At the final part of research the produced proposals can be seen on these basic subjects; * For the high quality of today's urban settlements which produced by town planners; must be figure out that users' s social-cultural and economical levels, physicological structures and their needs. And physical environment must be formed on this structure and must be together with social environment. * To users to form their house and environment, production, creation, protection and correct use methods must be improved. Today's new settlements can be owned and can get identity by that. Therefore at Bahçeşehir villa areas by adding users to the production, more suitable identity environments for their needs must be producted. Pattern: Criterions of public-open-spaces at Bahçeşehir and Kuzguncuk * While; design elements (pattern, scale, rate, color etc. ) at public-open- spaces of new settlements been used, must be approached by the totalitorion angle of vision. * Because of the site organizations been formed by traditions and by social cultural structures; green spaces, streets, the public-open- spaces created by the Plazas and buildings are carying their life period and their site styles up today. The concepts about peoples happiness, nature of life can be learned from street orders, street- house relation, densities, neighborhood relations at the ancient-historical settlements. For this reason, during the planning and application phases of the new urban settlements, particularly the patterns and features of the ancient -historical urban settlements should be considered to get benefit. * When user ' s social-cultural structure and social understandings been thought front of the economical factors during new settlements been produced, the settlement had had identity and high legibility. However, original settlements brings close social relationships in same time. * At new urban settlements there must be elements which will determine the city image. These elements must not be high concrete blocks and urban establishment. But these elements; parks, street and plazas like public-open-spaces must be take form. * At the settlements; suitable colors to the function and shapes which produced and to users must be found. And, need to be careful to use these colors in harmon-ious each other. * At public-open-spaces rate and scale elements must be evaluate carefully. * While planning the public- open- spaces complexity and sameness elements must be balance very well. * The monotonous at the dynamic sites ( street etc. ) of the public-open-spaces must be removed. The rich difference that the ancient -historical urban settlements have must be taken great pains with use. * The stable sites (plazas etc.) which let the permanent actiens will inf aluence social relationship positively must be taken great pain with their desings.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Açık alanlar; Kentsel yerleşim; İstanbul-Bahçeşehir; İstanbul-Kuzguncuk, Open spaces ;Urban settlements ;İstanbul-Bahçeşehir ;İstanbul-Kuzguncuk
Alıntı