Metrolarda Yangın Güvenlik Önlemleri

dc.contributor.advisor Öztürk, Turgut tr_TR
dc.contributor.author Fazilet, Rabia Sinem tr_TR
dc.contributor.authorID 10066554 tr_TR
dc.contributor.department İnşaat Mühendisliği tr_TR
dc.contributor.department Civil Engineering en_US
dc.date 2015 tr_TR
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-10T08:41:05Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-10T08:41:05Z
dc.date.issued 2015-10-23 tr_TR
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015 tr_TR
dc.description Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2015 en_US
dc.description.abstract Dünyanın en büyük buluşlarından biri olan ateş pek çok yerde hayatımızı kolaylaştırdığı gibi kontrol edilmediğinde sonuçları felaketlere neden olan yangınlara yol açabilmektedir. Zamanla medeniyetin ve teknolojinin gelişmesiyle birlikte artan yangınlar, deprem gibi gerek insan hayatı açısından gerekse maddi açıdan ülkenin gelişimini etkiler duruma gelmiştir. Tarih boyunca meydana gelen yangınlar çok büyük can ve mal kayıplarına sebep olmuştur. Bunun nedeni olarak en başta yangın güvenliği bilincinin yeterince yerleşmemiş olması ve yönetmeliklerin tam anlamıyla uygulanmıyor olması gelmektedir. Yangının oluşumu kesin olarak önlenemese de alınacak önlemler ile vereceği zarar en aza indirilebilir. Yangının vereceği zarardan korunmak amacıyla yapının tasarım, yapım, işletme, kullanım süreci ve bakım süreçleri boyunca yangın güvenliği adına tüm önlemler alınmak zorundadır. Yangın da aynı deprem gibi nerde ve ne zaman olacağı belli olmayan ve sonuçları felaketle sonuçlanan ve genellikle ihmaller zinciriyle oluşan bir olaydır. Fakat ülkemizde yangına deprem kadar önem verilmemekte, tedbirler genellikle üstünkörü alınmaktadır. Başta Soma maden faciası olmak üzere ülkemizde son yıllarda görülen felaketler yangın esnasında yapılması gerekenler hakkında yeterli bilgimiz ve tecrübeli elemanımızın olmayışını ortaya koymaktadır. Yönetmeliklerin yangın için uyarlanması ve daha kapsamlı bir yangın yönetmeliği oluşturulması gerekmektedir. Yapılan bu tez çalışmasında; BYKHY (Binalarının Yangından Korunması Hakkında Yönetmelik) kapsamında öncelikle yanma ve yangın kavramlarından bahsedilmiş temel bilgilerin oluşması sağlanmıştır. Dünyada meydana gelmiş olan büyük metro yangınlarının nedenleri ve sonuçlarına değinilmiştir. Metrolarda meydana gelebilecek olan yangın olaylarına karşı alınması gereken önlemlerden söz edilmiştir. Bu bağlamda İstanbul metrosunda kullanılan yangın senaryoları, nasıl oluşturuldukları, istasyon ve vagonlarda kullanılan malzeme özellikleri ve hangi yönetmeliklerden yararlanıldığı anlatılmıştır. Metrolarda yangın güvenliği bilincinin oluşturulması doğrultusunda hazırlanan tez çalışması, beş ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde konuya giriş yapılmış, metrolarda yangın güvenliği konusunda yapılmış olan çalışmalar ve tezler araştırılıp konunun geçmişten bugüne gelişimi ele alınmış ve tezin amacı ortaya konulmuştur. İkinci bölümde yanma ve yangın ile ilgili genel kavramlar detayları ile anlatılmıştır. Ayrıca yangın çeşitleri, söndürme yöntemleri, yangın safhasındaki tehlikeler ve yangının insan vücuduna etkileri bu bölümde ele alınmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde taşıyıcı sistem elemanlarının yangın güvenliği kapsamında betonarme ve çelik taşıyıcı sistemlerde yangın güvenliği anlatılarak yangın yalıtımı yöntemleri ortaya konulmuştur. Dördüncü bölümde metrolar başlığı altında metrolarla ilgili genel bilgi verilmiş ve metroların tarihçesinden bahsedilmiştir. Ayrıca metrolarda yangın güvenliği kapsamında alınması gereken önlemler, havalandırma ve duman tahliye sistemleri hesapları, metrolarda simülasyon programı sonucu yapılmış olan senaryolar ve son olarak da dünyada meydana gelen büyük metro yangınlarından bahsedilmiştir. Beşinci ve son bölümde ise metrolarda yangın güvenliği için yapılması gerekenlerden ve ülkemizde bu konudaki yetersizliklerden bahsedilmiştir. Ayrıca büyük felaketlerin devamı gelmemesi için alınması gereken önlemlere değinilmiş ve bulgular tavsiye niteliğinde ele alınarak konu ile ilgili oluşturulacak olan yasal düzenlemelere kaynak teşkil edilmiştir. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Fire is the one of the greatest inventions in the world that make our lives easier but if it can not be controlled can lead to terrible disaster. Fire, increasing with the development of civilization and technology, such as earthquakes, cause bad effect of development of the country. Fires through the history has been the cause of the huge loss of life and property. The reason for this is the lack of established primarily for fire safety awareness and comes to have not fully implemented the directive. If the damage is prevented, with measures to be taken as conclusive formation of the fire can be minimized. Building design in order to avoid the damage from the fire, construction, operation, and maintenance of process on behalf of fire safety during use processes must take all precautions. In this thesis study; BYKHY is provided to occur basic information mentioned in the concept of burning and fire. Large underground fires that have occurred in the world,has cause and results. In this context, the Istanbul subway fire scenarios used in, how they are created, and materials used in the station, wagon and was told that benefited from which regulations. Finally, so far rarely been the subject of a thesis in the metro are given information about the studies that have been made about fire safety. Unwanted fire is a destructive force that causes many thousands of deaths and billions of dollars of property loss each year. People around the world expect that their homes and workplaces will be safe from the ravages of an unwanted fire. Unfortunately, fires can occur in almost any kind of building. The safety of occupants depends on many factors in the design and construction of buildings, including the expectation that certain buildings and parts of buildings will not collapse in a fire or allow the fire spread. Fire deaths and property losses could be eliminated if all fires were prevented, or if all fires were extinguished at the flame. Fire can be reduce the probability of occurance, but it is impossible to prevent all major fires. Given that some fires will always occur, there are many strategies for reducing their impact, and some combination of these will generally be used. Although tunnel fires are not a common case, "Ground the public transportation systems" to be used by the crowded masses, requires special measures in this regard. Turned into a disaster of the many results of the causes of fires occurring in Metro reveals the lack of fire safety precautions need to be taken first. The use of smoking materials, such as flammable and toxic plastic lights, and deficiency of help devices and lack of fire resistant of electrical cables used in railway cars are caused a fire disaster. As in most of the disastrous fire occurred in metro is not the cause of death from fire, carbon monoxide and cyanide gas in the smoke are known to be toxic poisoning. The first thing to be done is get rid of toxic fumes. The lack of smoke evacuation systems in case of a fire in the subway tunnel is the most important reason that converts the results of the subway fire disaster occurred in the past. Besides, lack of the active safety fire extinguisher tubes, sprinklers and other fighting equipment occured terrible results. These results clearly indicate that the lack of precautions cause fire in the world in the past year. Many studies have been done in the world on fire, regulations and arranged a separate regulation was made especially for the subway. Compared with the developed countries, subway tunnel in fire safety we have a long way to cross in our country. There are no regulation in Turkey except building of Fire Protection (BYKHY) and TSE Regulation. Especially metro transport network of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality which will spread to every place within the working target of 776 km of metro network will arise due to the underground fire safety and smoke evacuation system should give more importance. For the moment in the subway and other underground structures NFPA and BS (British Standard) was used to as well. Not only in the subway but also all businesses operating underground fire and smoke evacuation systems security is of the most importance. May 13, 2014 date as a result of the fire that occurred in the coal mine in Soma 301 people dead because of smoke poisoning is the most concrete examples. In this case show that the country has not enough precision about safety. As a result of the statistics conducted by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, there are about 10,000 residential building fires every year. When the fire occures unclear like earthquake. Therefore, it is necessary to take lots of measures to fire as the measures taken for the earthquake. Fire disaster occurs much more frequently then earthquake. Therefore, the fire regulation must be regulated or produce new fire regulations. Thesis prepared in accordance with the creation of fire safety awareness in metro consists of five main sections. In the first part made introduction to the topic, studies and dissertations that have been made about fire safety in underground researched the subject deal with in the past development has been demonstrated to date and purpose of the thesis. General concepts related to the second part, burning and fire is described in detail. In addition, types of fire extinguishing methods, the effects of fire hazards in the fire phase and the human body are discussed in this section. Therefore, the growth rate of fire, high temperature, respiratory distress caused by toxic gases, collapse, electrical and chemical hazard are the other hazards in the fire place. The third chapter in the context of fire safety in concrete and steel structure structural elements explaining fire safety fire insulation methods are put forward. In this section is mention about the fire resistance of reinforced concrete system including the effects of high-temperature in steel and concrete. In addition, fire resistance of steel structural systems and measures to be taken are also included in this section. These measures are; spray-applied systems, plate systems, prefabricated systems, painting with intumescent paint, fill with concrete and fill with water. So that, the supporting elements can provide resistance to fire. Fourth section is mentioned about general information about the underground subways and a short history of the subway. In addition, measures should be taken in context of the subway fire safety, ventilation and smoke extraction systems, accounts, scenarios that have been made as a result of the simulation program in the subway and finally the world were mentioned in a large underground fire occurred. Fire safety measures in the metro are analyzed in three categories; wagons, tunnels and stations. Finally, we focused on large underground fire that occurred in the world in this section. Paris(Couroness), Londra (King’s Cross), Baku, Eurochannel (Mans Tunnel) and Korean underground fires are the most important fires in the world. This fire of the reasons given in detail and describe the measures taken afterwards in this part. The fifth and final section is mentioned about measures to be taken for fire safety in our country. Therefore in our country must have been a new regulations about this issue. As mentioned in the previous section, fire occurs too often and time is not clear. Compared with the earthquake, the incidence of the measures taken are very rare earthquake is much more than measures to fire. This contrasts situation must be resolve and make modifications in the regulations about fire. Outside America, Canada and other developed european country, there is no measures about fire. Moreover, we need to rise above world standard about fire safety in subway tunnels. We will expect legal arrengements and lots of developments about fire safety in our country. en_US
dc.description.degree Yüksek Lisans tr_TR
dc.description.degree M.Sc. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/13979
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü tr_TR
dc.publisher Institute of Science and Technology en_US
dc.rights İTÜ tezleri telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights İTÜ theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject Yangın tr_TR
dc.subject Metro tr_TR
dc.subject Yangın Güvenlik Önlemleri tr_TR
dc.subject Senaryolar tr_TR
dc.subject Havalandırma Sistemleri tr_TR
dc.subject Nfpa tr_TR
dc.subject Fire en_US
dc.subject Subways en_US
dc.subject Fire Safety Measures en_US
dc.subject Scenarios en_US
dc.subject Ventilation Systems en_US
dc.subject Nfpa en_US
dc.title Metrolarda Yangın Güvenlik Önlemleri tr_TR
dc.title.alternative Fire Safety Measures In Subways en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.type Tez tr_TR
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