Şehirsel açık alan kullanımının erişebilirlik ve işlevsel çeşitlilik yöntemlerinden değerlendirilmesi

Kızıltuğ, Hakan
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Süreli Yayın ISSN
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Tez çalışması kapsamında rekreasyon ve açık alan kavramı ve şehirsel açık alanlarda rekreasyonel kullanıma yönelik açık alan örnekleri incelenmiştir. Bu tez çalışmasında " Açık alanların erişilebilirliğinin barındırdığı aktivite çeşidinin ve yakın çevresindeki kentsel alanda yer alan işlev türlerinin, kullanıcı çeşitliliğim etkilediğini " hipotezinden hareketle seçilen üç açık alanın kullanıcı ve kullanım biçiminin analizi yapılmıştır. Yedi bölümden oluşan çalışmanın, 1.Bölümde,konunun amacı, yöntemi ve kapsamı açıklanmıştır. 2.Bölüm, ilgili konuya temel olması amacıyla "rekreasyon ve boş zaman" kavramlarını, ardından rekreasyon sınıflan ve şehirsel alanda rekreasyon ihtiyacının ele alındığı bölümdür. 3. Bölüm, kapsamında şehirsel açık alanlar genel olarak ele alınarak incelenmiştir. 4. Bölüm, şehirsel açık alan kullanımı genel olarak ele alınmıştır. 5. Bölüm, şehirsel açık alanların kullanım yönünden meydan ve parkların incelenmesi yapılırken Demokrasi Parkı, Ulus Parkı ve Ortaköy Meydanı örneklerinden yaralanılmıştır. ö.Bölüm bu açık alan örneklerinde kullanıcılarla yapılan anket çalışmasının sonuçları ve değerlendirmesi de yer almaktadır. 7.Bölüm, sonuç ve öneriler bölümüdür.
Leisure is the time available for a person beyond needed for existance and subsistance. In the other words,leisure is the time when you pass except an essential part of living of direct benefit to individual. The pattern of leisure time vary tremendously, in examining these, it is possible to identify several different types of leisure time. I. There are large concentrated periods of two weeks or more a)For the employed adult or the school child there are vacations b)Adults in employable who unemployment age groups have leisure time c)Overaged who retired person has leisure time Il.Unregular holidays which includes leisure times (public and religious, summer holiday) III. Unregular short time which are leisure times(15-30 minutes) Recreation is closely related toleisure. If leisure means the time in which activities (or inactivity), decided upon are undertaken, in this case the relation of recreation and leisure is very close. xin Recreation literally means refresment of bodies or mind. Recreation refers to the human emotional and inspirational experience arising out of the recreation act. Aran explains,the meaning of recreation as passing your daily life with boring,disciplined works, then you deal with your loved, admired interest that you would renew your body and store energy. These would prepare you to a new and high capasity working periods. Akesen; According to individuals admiration it's satisfied, carrying of mental and phsical renewal aims at the same time it depends on economic, cultural and phsical opportunity and these movements include in using leisure time. Recreation has large places of activity so that you can see different classification of recreation. 1. Active Recreation 2. Passive Recreation 3. Commercial Recreation 4. Social Recreation 5. International Recreation 6. Countryside Recreation 7. Aesthetic Recreation 8. Intellectual Recreation 9. Physical Recreation 10. Forest Recreation 1 1. Indoor Recreation 12. Outdoor Recreation XIV From early times men needed recreation, and used different patterns of recreation which changed by the time. As the time goes on, the factors affecting the need for recreation and the areas available for recreation are increasing. Urbanization, especially developments in big cities,reduced the available areas as playground for children, and increase in the number of buildings caused a reduction in the areas available for the remaining age groups. In urban space people live in different settlement they are especially different income level and showing social-cultural structure. Person's opportunities depend on leisure time using and this starts different recreation needs. We can see recreation needs in urban area in four group 1. Low-income group's recreation needs 2. Middle-income group's recreation needs 3. Upper-income group's recreation needs 4. Industrial and commercial areas recreation needs URBAN OPEN SPACES Land is a complex element,functional in various ways and "the land use is the end product of a series of factors begining with attitude and behaviour proceeding to activities and culminating in associated spatial requirement" Industrialization and urbanization decreased the open spaces and in consequence, the concept and need for these spaces gained more importance. Open spaces played an important role in urban life all through the history. Especially in old Greek and Roman cities, the open spaces have been known as "Agora" and XV "Forum". In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the open spaces in western cities were placed at the center and at the most valuable and popular parts of them. We also meet the examples of this type in Anatolian Turkish cities, the open spaces around the mosques, medreses, fountains have served as a meeting place for people,as a recreation place and as a place to meet commercial activities. These places had economic, aesthetic and administrative functions and the dimensions of these functions changed in parallel with industrialization. Concept of open spaces have different meanings. The reason for this is that there are different types and different functional open spaces. In general, functions of open spaces in urban area ; 1. Biological Function 2. Meteorical Function 3. Social Function 4. Physical Function 5. Aesthetic Function 6. Phycholigical Function There are many open space type in urban area,generally open spaces which serves recreational activities can be classified four type; 1. Playgrounds 2. Playing areas 3. Parks 4. Squares Today open spaces provide ecological equilibrium that their functions become less harmless especially in big cities there spaces are called as important. Meaningly park XVI and squares answer to open space's needs according to physical structure open spaces can answer these needs. In a tissue of cities an open space standarts of main norms differ according to city recreation needs, topographic and climate specialities, using of an area, social, structure & residentment, type & density. We can express these factors as four type ; 1.Population 2. Character of a city 3. Needs 4.Density of usage URBAN OPEN SPACE USAGE Studies about urban open space, can be classified as different types. Open space recreation activities occur with parks, playground and square usage problems and researches are very important to understand the concept of it. Open Spaces such as parks, playgrounds and squares have been criticized in the past as largely failing to serve their intended uses and users. Nonuse of urban open spaces, vandalizm, and outdated facilities are examples of problems commonly identified with urban open spaces indeed. Urban open space research originated from public awareness of the social failure of many urban open spaces. Dimensions of urban open space quality can be gleaned from past advances in reseach and application. One measurement of success of an open spaces is whether people are comfortable and feel safe in it. If so, the space may be considered well used. Yet use, comfort, and safety may not be sufficient criteria alone to make a space successful. xvii Public space rights including public access and opportunities for change and appropriation needs to be respected. Users need to feel a sense of control and ownership over a space. The space also needs to provide opportunities for environmental learning and offer users a sense of discovery, deligt, and challenge. Ecological and economic factors also need to be integrated into the planning and management of the space. The broader meanning or connectedness of people to the open space is also an important dimension of quality. Investigation Squares & Parks With Each Other According To Usage of Urban Open Space.Demokrasi park, Ulus park and Ortakoy square Usage of urban differ from different open spaces types. Parks and squares carry out different character so having social, Phsical and culturel, functional structure. For this reason this study has details of different open space usage. This study comparing parks and squares with each other.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Açık alanlar, Rekreasyon, Recreation, Open spaces