Antalya-Kaleiçi yapılarının günümüzdeki durumu

Sunar, Aysun
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Kaleiçi, Antalya ili sınırları içinde, ilin bugünkü ticaret merkezinin ortasında yer almaktadır. Liman çevresinde oluşmuş bu lunan yerleşim iç ve dış surlar arasında yer alan bir iç kaledir. Toplam 664 yapı stoğunun kkl adeti tarihi yapı olan yerleşim sit alanıdır. Kaleiçi yapılarının tez konusu olarak seçilmesinin nedenleri, yapılan araştırmalar ve çalışmada izlenen yöntem, karşılaşılan zor luklar birinci bölümde yer almaktadır. Bölgenin tarihsel gelişimi, ikinci bölümdedir. Üçüncü bölümde Kaleiçi yapılarının özellikleri açıklanmıştır. Yapıların gruplandırılıp seçilen örneklerin tek tek ele alındığı, müdahale öncesi ve sonrası durumlarının karşılaştırıldığı, müdahale nedenlerinin incelendiği, eklerin tesbit edildiği bölüm, dördüncü bölümdür.
This theses includes the prensent situation of Antalya- Kaleiçi buildings. Kaleiçi which is located in the focus of the Antalya's trade center, is a semi-circular living area around the harbour, surrounded by inner and outer walls This study is consisted of four parts In the first part, the reasons, uhy the present situ ation of Antalya-Kaleiçi buildings is chosen as the subject of the theses, are stated. The methods of research and study and the shortcomings are also stated. In Kaleiçi, since the very beginnings of the history, there had lived an enormous number of nations that owned various cultures. As a result of this fact, it is possible to observe the marks of different cultures together. The historical buildings that are located in this culture pond are slightly protected by the still standing outer walls. Studies concerning Kaleiçi constructions are either very general or including only one or two of the houses1 restorations. The first study is facade and plan typology which was prepared by DDTÜ, Faculty of Architecture, Resto ration Department. The second study. which was given to the same department in 1985 as theses by Fuat Gökçe, consisted of the restoration project of 3 houses. The last research was presented to Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Archi tecture, Restoration Department in 19B8 as theses by Sevil Aygen. In this theses, the historical development of lo cation was studied andarölöve of a house was drawn. UJe can see a lot of restoration studies in Kaleiçi buildings, most of which are at the very beginning phase. Restorations which had been completed are in minority. It is considerable that by time the number of the histo rical buildings will decrease, whereas in Kaleiçi they are increasing. There is no difference between the new const ruction and the restorated one. Today the peculiarities of real historical buildings can be stabilized. But in future it will be ' impossible. Each of the photographs taken today, will be evaluated as a historical document. -xx- Because of these reasons, Kaleiçi Buildings are chosen as the subject of this theses. The second part is about the region's historical de velopment. The communities which settled the area during the period covered from the Hellenistic Age upto present time are shortly explained. Uhile studying on the monu mental buildings, made by these communities, walls are examined in a more detailed way. Construction _ of the walls, repairs, additions are studied on with their rea sons. During these studies, the notes of the famous wri ters and trawellers, like Ibn-i Batuta, Evliya Çelebi, Texier, Lanckoronsky, Beaufort, who had visited the region during Seljukian and Ottoman Empires, are used. In the first years of Republic, Kaleiçi had sometimes loosen population. When the original owners of the buildings had moved to other places, families of a lower living stan dard had settled their places. After having prepared of Protection and Reconstruction Plan and with the appealing tourism directed studies activity started. According to the stabilizations made by DDTÜ, there are 664 piece af construction blocks. 447 of them are historical buildings, the others are new buildings. In the third part the peculiarities of traditional Kaleiçi constructions is explained. In the buildings, because of climate conditions and constructions made of wood in the area, there are some differences in detail. Except these, they show the same specialities with the ot her Turkish houses. Duter and inner hall plans are diffused in the const ructions. From the open - outer hall plan type the first phase of outer hall plan type, to the closed ones by pulling down shutters and windows, every type is available. Buildings are generally two-storeyed. There is a rood- floor for being used as a room in cold winter days, or as a ware house. Ground floors were built by using soil -mortar from ashlar or rubble stone. Upper floors were constructed with wooden frames. There are also buildings of which upper floors are made of stone. Projections are also used on the facades. Metal and plastered wooden console is seen under the projections. There are curved forms at the bottom of the projection. -XXI- In the fourth part present Kaleiçi buildings are ca tegorized. For each category, buildings of different types have been selected. Buildings have been examined ?one by one in a detailed may. For this plans, facades, new and old photographs are used. In the first category, there are the buildings that still have their traditional characteristic. And they are grouped into two:. Never repaired buildings. Slightly repaired buildings. In slightly repaired houses, the reparations belong to recent years. To start a reparation you have to apply to the city Municipality and Directorate of Museums with a rölöve of the building. Building's painting, repara tion of garden wall and things like that are included in reparation. It is seen that workmanship and equipment were bad in the repaired buildings. But even in a less amount there are good' examples. Second group includes the restorated buildings. This group is divided into two.. Restorations of mono-buildings. Restorations of two or more buildings together. In the restorations of mono-buildings rölöve and res toration plans, new and old photos of the buildings are compared. After the restorations, houses are used as hotel or pension. Even in less numbers, buildings used as houses are seen. Generally buildings are damaged and -xxxx- built as reinforced concrete houses. During restoration original details are changed. Details, that owner or arc hitect wanted, are used. There are buildings that have changed a lot after the restorations. In the buildings there are changes that are required by new functions. The restorations which have been made by unification of two or more buildings, are all used as pensions or ho tels. There are two different situations in unification, In the firs one, by removing the walls between the row houses a complete building is obtained. Thus number of rooms increases. The different characteristics of the facades is not taken in care. Either for each of two bu ildings, one's facade is chosen and used, or some peculi arities of each of them is taken and mixed. The second one is the common use of seperated houses. This is obtained by a common court. Court's outside surfa ce is open. Functions are divided into two buildings. Sometimes kitchen, dining room, serving parts are settled in a building's ground floor. From the ground floor of the other building rooms are located. And sometimes the upper floors of both buildings are used as hotel rooms. In the third group, applications of zero parcel is stated. Buildings in this group are all used as pensions. This application, was seen just once in the second group building, is generally applicated to the fourth group buil dings, the unqualified old houses are being demolished. Instead of them, houses fitting the Kaleiçi Architecture are built. New buildings consist of 3 floors. Regulations allow this. As the types of plans one of the inner hall or outer hall plans should be chosen. Ue can see deformed inner and outer halls. -In the facades details that are compiled from that don't exist in Kaleiçi are used. The fourth group includes the application in which zero parcel and restoration studies are done together. The construction which is used as an hotel is the result of the union of four different buildings. The two of them are rebuilt- after destruction. The other one is restorated. A new construction is added to the ons' that is restorated". The passage between buildings is supplied direct in adjacent, with a court in the seperated ones. -XXlll- In the fifth part there are new applications comple tely unrelated to traditional buildings. These construc tions strike attention. Because they are from the city apartments, wide spread and unqualified. Their plans are not even involved. The facades of the buildings which are fixed with photographs are taken in to consi deration. The facades of the buildings, which are generally very bad, have no speciality. Desicion of dest roying them is not taken. These constructions will pro bably continue remain standing.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
Antalya-Kaleiçi, Geleneksel konut, Tipoloji, Antalya-Kaleiçi, Traditional dwelling, Typology