Madencilik ölçmelerinde kuyu cidarlarındaki deformasyonların saptanması ve bazı öneriler

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Tarih
1978
Yazarlar
Tekin, Engin
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Madencilik ölçmelerinde ana konulardan biri de defor- masyonların saptanmasıdır. İşletmelerde, maden imalâtının neden olduğu zemin hareketleri ve bunların kuyu cidarların da ortaya çıkardığı de formasyonlar konusunda yapılan bu ça lışma için Türkiye'deki en büyük kuruluşlardan biri olan B- reğli Kömürleri îşletmesi'nin Zonguldak Maden Havzasındaki kuyuları ile ilgili bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Çalışma,. dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. I. Bölümde, Zonguldak Kömür Havzası 'nın tarihçesi, 0- retim Bölgeleri, kat ve galerilerin tanıtılma sistemleri, yönetim ve görev kademeleri ile teknik çalışmalar hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. Bu bölümde, kuyulardaki deformasyon ölçmelerinden beklenen amaçlar da belirtilerek, Kozlu üretim Bölgesindeki 1 ve 2 No.lu Uzunmehmet kuyularında bu ölçme lerle ilgili uygulamalar açıklanmıştır. XI. Bölümde, mekanik çeküllema ile kuyu cidarlarında yapılan ölçmelere göre deformasyonlarm saptanması konusunda ~ 11 - uygulanabilecek bir hesaplama yöntemi verilmiştir. Bu hesap lamada, çekül bazı ile buna âxk çap doğrultusunun oluştur duğu eksen sistemindeki koordinatlar tanımlanmış ve bunların nokta konumlarını bel irlemede sağlayacağı presizyon araştı rılmıştır. Sonuçtat çekül bazının cidarlardan birine yakın seçilmesinin sakıncalı olacağı, bâzın kuyu merkezinden geç mesi durumunda, homogen dağılımlı cidar noktaları için ideal bir konum elde edileceği, baz büyüklüğünün homogen dağılımlı nokta sayısı ile doğru orantılı olduğu ve çekül bazı doğrul tusunda ya da bu doğrultu yakınındaki cidar noktaları için konum presizyonunun düşük olacağı görülmüştür* III. Bölümde, kuyu cidarları ile boyuna eksenin eğik duruşları için düzenlenen enine ve boyuna kesit çizimlerin de presizyon incelenmiştir. Bu bölümde ayrıca kuyu eğik du ruşunun üç boyutlu görünümünü veren izometrik perspektif çi" zimi ile herhangi bir çap doğrultusunda, eğik duruşu saptamak üzere, çap uçlarındaki cidar noktalarının deplasman büyük lüklerini gerçek boyları ile gösterme olanağı veren yeni bit çizim şekli açiklanmiştir. İV. Bölüm ise, varılan sonuçlarla ilgili önerileri içermektedir.
In mine surveying one of the major problems is to determine deformations. The aim of this research is to measure the deformations at shaft walls caused by ground movements that is a result of ore exploitation. The necessary preliminary research was undertaken at Zonguldak Mining Territory of Ereğli Coal Administra tion. In the first part of this research Zonguldak Mining Territory is introduced and technical works there, are explained. Besides these, the goals of deformation measure ments in shafts are given and as an example in the shafts Uzunmehmet No: 1 and No: 2 in Kozlu Territory, the applica tions in connection with such measurements are explained. Measurements in Shaft Nos 1 In the measurements dated July 1972 between heights -XV- +11,98 m. and -417,30 m. 83 stations are taken. On the shaft wall, 6 points are chosen. Mechanical plumbing was applied and plumb base was measured as 2,67 m. working 2 hours per day all measurements were completed in 1 month i Measurements in Shaft No: 2 In the measurements made in 1968, 6 heights were used. The number öf wall points was 8 and plumb base was 2,00 m. In the measurements made in 1969 between heights 14,6 in. and -344 m. 73 stations were taken. Oh the shaft wall 4 points were chosen. Plumb base was 3,76 m. The duration of the complete measurements was 1 month. In the second part, an algorithm is given to determine displacements from the measurements made at wall points by using mechanical plumbing. Here, in a vertical shaft with circular cross-section, a coordinate system was formed by using plumb base and the diameter perpendicular to the base as coordinate axes and the coordinates in this system are introduced. Using this coordinates the quanti ties (v) and (s) are computed defining the displacements of the wall points* By investigating the computation precision of the coordinates, the orientation of plumb base, and the number of points ön the shaft wall, following results are obtained: 1- In a Vertical shaft with circular cross-section the plumb base ÂB arid the diameter perpendicular to this - V - plumb base form a coordinate system. The perpendicular (h) from a wall point to the base forms a part (p) along direc tion A and a part (q) along direction B. Denoting the dis tance of the same wall point to plumb wire (A) by (a) and the distance of the same point to plumb wire (B) by (b) and measuring AB « (l); (p), (q), (h) are obtained by using the following formulas: A 4. a2 - b2 I a2 - b2 p = 2 2İ ' q = 2 31 h m *a2 - p2 s /2j2 - q2~ 2- By using the computed (p), (q), (h) displacement components (v) and (s) are found, (v) is along a direction I perpendicular to the plumb base,, (s) is along a direction parallel to the plumb base (Section 2.3, 2.4 and 2,5), 3- In the case of plumb base passing through the center M of the shaft and plumbs being equidistant from the walls, at a wal.1 point close to the plumb wire (A), (q) is computed more accurately, Correspondingly the same holds for (p) (Table 2*4 and 2.5). The distances of wall points to the plumb base is computed by h a ^b2 - q2 if a > b, and by h a ^a2 - p2 if a < b (Section 2.7.3 and 2.7,4). In investigating the computation precisions öf (p). -vi^ (q), (h), the mean square errors of (a), (b) > (&j are found to be equal: m = m, m m" m m. * =bx,s a 4- In the case one öf the measured distances (a) and (b) being perpendicular to the plumb base, (p) \j?r(q)J and (h) are computed with highest precision*. 5- Wall points giving projections ön the extension of the plumb base should not be selected. AS a result öf this as the number öf points oh the wall increases with a homogeneous distribution, base length should be increased. If the base length is small, at wall points on the base or close to the base, the computation precision of (h) dimi nishes. 6- If the base is not passed through the center of shaft in determining displacements, blunders may occur. Es pecially, for a point on the near wall, a situation error perpendicular to the base arid for a point on the remote wall, a situation error parallel to the base emerges. Because of these reasons plumbs must be hung along the diameter or in other words, the base should pass from the shaft center. in Part ill for determining obliquity oi the shafts cross and longitudinal sections are investigated* On the other hand the isometric perspective drawing of the rein forcement and shaft's longitudinal axis in the three dimeti-;; sional (X, Y, Z) system is i explained. In this part the following results are obtained: - vıı - 1- In shafts, the precision of the cross-section drawing is directly proportional to the number of wall points. In drawing cross-sections, after the application of wall points to connect the points, circles with different centers are used. In this work, a shaft section with 6 points are used (Figure 3.1). For three consecutive points, by taking the perpendicular of the chords at their middle points, a center is determined. The circle passing through points 3, 4, 5 and the circle passing through points 4, 5, 6 form two different curves between points 4 and 5. Especially in cross-sections with sparse points^ reinforcement should be located in such a curve pair. For this reason a curve approximating the two curves gives a better approximation. 2- At a certain direction, the new form of the rein forcement and longitudinal axis after the displacement may be found by perspective drawing. Here for three dimensional projection isometric perspective is used (Figure 3.16). 3- After moving the displacement vectors to the shaft center there is a possibility of making a drawing at a scale 1:1 without choosing any horizontal scale. üj this drawing, the shaft is represented by a vertical line (Figure: 3. 17). In isometric perspective,?lengths (v) are unaltered, but lengths (s) are diminished 0,577 times. The same is ?.:.- true for the displacements of the center M.
Açıklama
Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1978
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1978
Anahtar kelimeler
Maden araştırma, Madencilik jeolojisi, Kuyu açma, Arazi kontrolü (Madencilik), Prospecting, Mining geology, Shaft sinking, Ground control (Mining)
Alıntı