Murad Molla Kütüphane Kompleksi Restorasyon Projesi

Pınarcıkoğlu, İ. Ebru
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Tevkii Cafer Mahallesi'nde geniş bir avlu içine yerleştirilmiş yapı Damadzade Mehmed Murad Efendi tarafından 1775 yılında yaptırılmıştır. Günümüzde kütüphane binası, idare binası olarak kullanılan bir taş oda ve lojman olarak kullanılan bir ahşap evden oluşan kompleks iyi durumdadır. Kompleksi oluşturan yapılardan 1776 tarihli tekke ve mescit 1927 yılında bir yangında tamamen yok olmuştur. Yapıların röle ve ve restorasyon projesi ve yeni kullanım önerilerini kapsayan bu çalışma yedi bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, kütüphane kavramı ve ilk kütüphane örnekleri incelenmiştir. XVIII. yy.'da kültür, sanat ortamı ve mimari ikinci bölümde yer almaktadır. Üçüncü bölüm, Fatih ve Çarşamba bölgesinin tarihi gelişimi ile ilgilidir. Dördüncü bölümde, yapı grubunun tarihi araştırması ve mimari tanımlamaları yapılmıştır. Yapılardaki bozulmalar, beşinci bölümde ele alınmıştır. Altıncı bölümde, yapılar çağdaşlarıyla karşılaştırılmış ve restitüsyon önerisi yapılmıştır. Yedinci ve son bölümde ise kompleksin yaşatılarak korunması için en uygun işlevler belirlenmiş ve restorasyon müdahaleleri önerilmiştir.
The subject of the thesis is the complex of Murad Molla which is situated in Tevkii Cafer district of Fatih. It was built by the orders of Damadzade Mehmed Murad in the second half of the 18th century. It comprises a library, an administrative building and a two-storied wooden house which is used as the lodging. Tekke and mescit which were situated in the same courtyard, were completely destroyed by a fire in 1927. The thesis covers the historical development and architectural characteristics of the buildings. The subject is treated in seven parts. The first chapter consist of a general introduction which explains the reasons for the choice of the subject, the methods that have been used during the research and the proposals for restoration. The historical development of the libraries is also included in this chapter. Library is the place where books are kept. It is known that the oldest libraries were built by the Babylonian. These were composed of clay tablets. Islamic people have considered the collection of manuscripts as an important activity and many libraries were built in mosques and madrasahs. Particularly in the Ottoman period, examples of libraries can be seen starting with Fatih Sultan Mehmed's reign. The first library of Istanbul is the Dar-ül Kütüb, which was established in the Old Palace at Beyazıt in the 15th century. But the first library building is the famous Köprülü Library (1661), named after its founder. The most important characteristics of the libraries of the Ottoman period are: 1. The building is usually situated in a courtyard to ensure a quite atmosphere. 2. Floor of the reading room is raised from the ground to prevent the books from the detrimental effect of moisture. 3. Two rows of windows provide daylight. xu 4. Against the danger of fire, the windows and the outer door are protected by iron shutters. 5. The libraries were directed with rules established by the vakfiyas. In the second chapter, the social and cultural structure of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century has been studied. The analysis of the Ottoman architecture under the growing influence of Europe has also been discussed in this part. Starting with the 18th century, the Ottoman architecture reflects the influence of Baroque and Rococo styles. These are exhibited by special decorative features. There was not a great deal of change in the general design of the buildings. The decorative elements like acanthus leaves, sea shells and cartouches are introduced to the Ottoman architecture in this period. C and S curves are seen frequently. The subject of the third chapter is the surroundings of the complex. Murad Molla Library was constructed in the historical district of Çarşamba, Fatih which has a lot of mosques, madrasahs and tekkes such as the mosques of Nişancı Mehmed Paşa, Mehmed Ağa, Fethiye and the madrasah of Semiz Ali Paşa, Üçbaş, Halil Efendi. Çarşamba is located on an area which reaches from northern part of Küçük Nişanca to Fener, at the shore of Haliç. Before the Conquest, it can not be said that Çarşamba was a dense settled district. After the conquest the Ottoman statesmen built mescids and established districts around them as Efdalzade, KUmrulu, Koğacı Dede, etc. This region of Istanbul can be regarded as the educational center of the Ottoman Empire after the Conquest. The investigation of development thorough the centuries, shows that the building activity is concentrated in the 16th century. Nowadays the district of Çarşamba consist of unsuitable buildings except some protected streets. The region is known as a traditional center where mosques, tekkes and madrasahs are concentrated. The fourth chapter covers the history and the architectural characteristics of the Murad Molla Complex. The buildings can be dated according to the inscriptions above the gate of the courtyard and above the entrance to the library. In 1769, the tekke and then in 1775, the library was constructed. Because the vakfiye of Damadzade Mehmed Murad Efendi could not be found, it was not possible to obtain more information about the administration of the library and tekke. The manuscripts of the library were transferred to the Süleymaniye Library in 1953-55. The buildings of the Murad Molla Complex were taken over by the Vakıflar and restored in 1954. Since 1956, the buildings are used as a Public Library. xni Location, detailed description and information about the structural and ornamental features of the buildings were also studied in the fourth chapter. The entrance of the courtyard of the complex is from Murad Molla Street. The complex which consists of a library, an administrative building and a two-storied wooden house is situated on an almost rectangular lot. The tekke and the mescit which can be seen on the map drawn in 1913-1914, do not exist today. The Murad Molla Library is a building having a symmetrical plan with its main axis lying in the direction of south-north. The central dome rests on four columns. It is surrounded by panelled vaults, whilst the corner areas are covered by small domes. Interesting baroque wooden bookcases, reflecting the style of he 18th century, are seen inside the library. The structural system consists of walls, columns and arches as the load bearing elements and domes and vaults. The walls were constructed of one course of stone and four courses of brick. The type of stone is a local lime stone called "küfeki" and "odtaşı". Two-storied facade of the library with the 10 upper and 14 lower windows provide daylight to the interior space. The administrative building also consist of two floors: a basement and a ground floor. The main room of the ground floor which is reached from the entrance hall is a square room covered by panelled vaults. The walls of administrative building were constructed of one course of stone and two courses of brick. The two-storied wooden house is situated in the eastern side of the courtyard. The five-roomed house is widened with overhangs at the upper floor. A one-storied ruin is attached to the southern side of the wooden house. In the fifth chapter, the decay mechanisms affecting of the Murad Molla Complex are discussed. The buildings do not have big structural problems. Because the level of the courtyard has risen in the course of time, library's and administrative building's basement windows are partially buried. A continuos drainage canal has been opened along the northern, western and eastern facades of the library and the northern and eastern facades of the administrative building. The porches with glass cases have been constructed above the entrance of the basements. The northern facade of the library has been plastered and the upper windows on this walls have been blocked because of moisture problems. The northern vaulted part of the basement of library is converted to a furnace room and a kitchen and a WC are placed in the basement of the administrative building, during the restoration in 1954. »v The damages caused by water humidity and growth of lichens are the main problems of the walls. The deterioration as abrasions and cracks of the stones, rust on the surface of the metal material, splits and locally spillings of the plasters can be seen. At the wooden house, the deteriorations as decays and colour changing of the facade's covering plates are determined. The restitution project of the complex were studied in the sixth chapter. It was produced according to the old photographs, maps and the constructional evidence provided by buildings. The original courtyard level is determined according to the examination of the relation between the basement windows and the steps at the entrance to the library. As the library building has carried on its original function, the plan features could be protected. The main restitution problems of the library are raised floor level between the outer walls and columns, disappeared floor materials and iron window shutters. In the restitution project of the administrative building, the toilet and the washbasin are supposed to be in the entrance hall according to the traces on the wall. The original basement door is determined to be on the northern facade of the building. Locations of the tekke and mescid are determined according to the map of Fatih dating from 1914. The one-storied ruin attached to the wooden house is supposed to have been used as a kitchen. The comparison of Murad Molla Library with the other libraries built in the same period is also included in sixth chapter. In general, plan, facade properties, structure, construction techniques and materials of the Murad Molla library shows similarities with 18th century libraries. The seventh chapter covers the proposals for restoration and re-use of the complex. It should be restored under consideration to be adjusted at the environmental conditions as a cultural center. It is proposed to consist of a library and a large room in its basement to be used for exhibitions and conferences, a culture house to be used for Ottoman Language and art courses and a cafe, arranged in the wooden house. The restoration techniques to be applied for the repair of the buildings are as follows: Cleaning Consolidation Integration Renovation Building new additions. xv It is proposed to clean the unsuitable additions in the courtyard and the porches attached to the basement doors of the library and administrative building. The present floors should be removed to find out the original floor materials. The northern facade of the library should be scraped to reveal the original alternating wall construction. The upper windows of this facade should be renewed with original details. It is also proposed to build a covered drainage canal around the library to prevent the damage caused by ground water. The public toilets of the complex should be situated, in the courtyard, under the ground. On the other hand, it is necessary to serve the technical needs of the buildings as electrical, heating and drainage systems. A heating system should be lay down to ensure the ground-heating in the library and administrative buildings. For the wooden house central heating system with radiator is proposed. The heating center should be located in the courtyard under the ground. All processes done during the restoration should be described and dated, accordingly.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Kütüphane binaları , Library buildings, Tarihi binalar, Restorasyon, Osmanlı mimarisi, Murad Molla Kütüphane Kompleksi, Kütüphane mimarisi, İstanbul, Historical buildings, Restoration, Ottoman architecture, Murad Molla Librarary Complex, Library architecture, İstanbul