Bir konfeksiyon işletmesinin verimlilik açısından değerlendirilmesi

dc.contributor.advisor Gözlü, Sitki Aktaş, Emine
dc.contributor.authorID 14218
dc.contributor.department İşletme Mühendisliği tr_TR 2023-03-16T05:54:25Z 2023-03-16T05:54:25Z 1990
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1990 tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Günümüz rekabet şartları işletmeleri günden güne daha kaliteli, daha fazla ve zamanında hizmet vermeye ve üretim yapmaya yöneltmektedir. Bu nedenle, daha az girdi ile daha çok çıktı elde edebilmenin yani verimli olmanın önemi giderek daha çok ağırlık kazanmıştır. Bu çalışmada, üretim sistemlerinde verimlilik kavramı üzerinde durularak, çeşitli verimlilik arttırma ve değerlendirme yöntemleri anlatılmıştır. Çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde, verimlilik kavramının ele alınıp, inceleneceği üretim sistemleri üzerinde durulmuştur. Üçüncü bölümde verimlilik kavramı açıklanmaya çalışılmış, verimliliğin işletme ve dolayısı ile milli ekonomi açısından önemi üzerine dikkat çekilmiştir. Ayrıca verimlilikle sık sık karıştırılan kârlılık, iktisadilik gibi bazı kavramlarla verimlilik arasındaki farklar belirtilmiş tir. Dördüncü bölümde, verimliliğin ölçülmesi gerektiği ve bazı ölçüm yöntemleri açıklanmıştır. Beşinci bölümde ise imalat sanayii verimlilik arttırma teknikleri teknoloji, malzeme, emek ve ürün temellerine dayandırılıp, sınıflandırı larak açıklanmıştır. Altıncı bölümde bir konfeksiyon işletmesi verimlilik açısından değerlendirilmiş ve işletmenin ağırlıkla uyguladığı teknoloji temeline göre verimliliği arttırma çalışmaları açıklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract In daily economic activities, production systems need to be more qualified, more productive and faster. Therefore the key word is "productivity" and this concept is getting more and more important. In this study, productivity concept, certain productivity improviment methods and their importance are examined. In the second part of the study, production systems in which productivity concept is explanied, are examined. In the third part, the productivity concept is explained. In a general meaning, the productivity is to be able to realize maximum production using the available production sources, or to carry out a required level of production utilizing niinimum source. In a comittee study organized by O.E.C.D. under the presidency of M. Jean Fourastie in 1950, clearer description of "productivity" is built up. According to this description, productivity is the proportion of the output to any production factors. Nowadays, it is believed that productivity is one of the top criteria for evaluating how much a country is developped. At the same time, productivity is a motivating factor for progress. We are in the age of technological progresses. These developments provide new opportunities in production process, that also affect the production directly in a positive way. As long as we keep up with the technological improvements in the world, we will be succesful in increasing productivity. A regular and consistent economic development and industrialization is the natural result of increasing productivity around the country. For higher productivity, effective usage of production factors (sources, inputs) is essential. Productivity is effective for lower cost and naturally lower selling prices and higher production. When the productivity increases, demand increases, therefore prices decrease. And as the additional production revenue created by productivity increase is utilized by employer or added to enterprise capital, and so economic development becomes easier. In the third part, sane concepts which are different from productivity concept and differences between these concepts are also explained. One of these concepts is "return on equity" or "profitability". Each financial organization aims profit maximization in order to increase the return on equity. But productivity targets optimum utilization of inputs. On the other hand, "efficiency" is another concept which is different from productivity. Efficiency is the criteria for detennining how for the target is achieved. In other words, it shows how well the results are. But it is not possible to exclude the concept of efficiency from productivity because productivity means efficient production. The factors which affect productivity is also explained in the same part. Because productivity is the result of total production factors, it is affected by labor, management effectiviness, organizational structure, efficiency of machinery and equipment and the capacity of the production unit. The working environment, motivation factors and the effects of these factors with each other also affect productivity. In the fourth part, productivity measurement methods and the importance of the measurement is explained. The required productivity level and the level at which the enterprise really runs, should be well known. Here is the some advantages of productivity measurement; 1. It will be useful in the planning of resources required for usage, 2. Inefficient parts can be detected and corrected, 3. It will lead the management to concentrate on technical and economical problems that exist. Output can be evaluated in terms of monetary or physical criteria. If the management plans to trace the daily production process and to solve the problems promptly, physical criterion for the productivity evaluation should be preferred. Evaluation of outputs by monetarial criterion is required for the following three cases; 1. If physical evaluation is not possible, 2. If the comparison of the enterprises that have no common industrial structure or no similiar operation is required. 3. If the output volume does not allow macro-economic analysis. Inputs which are used in the production of a unit, consist of labor, capital, raw materials, energy and euxiliry services. Labor XI can be evaluated in terms of workhours, number of employees or number of workdays; The measurement of the capital can be done In terms of fixed assets like building, land, machinery and equipment that combine the production process. It is not possible to measure these inputs phsically, so monetarial criterion is used. Sumanth classified the methods for increasing productivity into four main groups as technology, material, labor and product bases; CAD (Computer Additional Design) is a method that works on techonolgy base and supported by a computer system. Its principal is the designation of the product, process or system by computer and especially it is useful for the preparation of complex pieces in three dimensions. CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) is an integration system that offers the opportunity of benefiting from computer at every stage, from marketing to delivery of the goods. Group technology is another technology - based system, especially effective in integrated manufacturing systems and units are organized according to geometrical similarities and operation order. Inventory control method is based on material and interested in two questions; the timing and the quantity of the order. MRP (Material Reqirement Planning) is up to management control on production process. It is not only useful for timing of material ordering, but also beneficial for management planning and control. Material management is the composition of the functions like purchasing, delivery, production control, inventory and quality. Quality Control is another method based on material and interested in the quality planning, evaluating and controlling of rawmaterials, auxiliary materials, finished goods and services. As a result of an effective quality control system, material, labor and machine hourlosses arase from rearranging operation decrease and productivity increases. Financial encouragement method is based on labor productivity. The most common one is "the salary per completed amount" plan. Promotion of the successful employee is dependent on both financial and non-financial motivation for increasing labor productivity. Job enrichment is another method, and plans to increase the motivation for harder workers giving more reseponsibility and competence. Methods based on product try to increase the productivity, decreasing the costs of planning, manufacturing, distributing and selling. Value analysis is related with the services for xii decreasing distribution and manufacturing costs or the change in the existing design of any product. In the fourth part, productivity improvment methods that are used in the Turkish manufacturing sector are also examined. These are; job analysis, job evaluation, job essay, motivation, incitemental salary system, quality control, inventory control, ergonomy, marketing, production planning, value anlysis. There are many reasons preventing the usage of these methods, in the manufacturing sector. Nonexistency of experts and insufficient kmwledge on methods are the reasons preventing the usage of job analysis method. The main obstacle for the usage of motivation method is that technological problems come before labor problems. Intitemental salary method is not thought as economic, whereas it requires less investment and is highly sensitive to source creation. The usage of methods for increasing productivity is not only dependent on the management concept of itself and on financial possibilities, but also on the effects of the economic system. In the last part, a company which operates in the garment industry is evaluated in terms of productivity. The textile sector has an important place in the Turkish Economy as well as in other developing countries. Because it provides wide occupation, added value and foreign currancy flows. The company that is evaluated in this study has a capacity of 250.000 units per mounth for exporting. In this study, it is determined that the company tends. to apply technological base methods to increase productivity, CAD (Computer Additional Design) is a method for increasing productivity on technological base. This method has been being used recently by the company. The system which is purchased from Spanish Investronica firm, provides many arvantages to the campany. Here are some advantages of thes system; 1. Cut plan is not being drawn by hand any more in the factory. As the system gives the wright cut plan in a short time, waiting time for the drawing of this cut plan and the wrong cuttings are minimized. 2. About 5% savings from the usage of the raw materials is achieved by this system. 3. As the system provides important savings in time, money labor and energy, productivity level increases. Production planning is another method based on material which is used by the company to increase productivity. As a result of the production planning, production is controlled and the production level that must be realized theoretically is known by the management. xiii As mentioned before, it is determined that the company tends to use the technological and material base methods to increase productivity. There is no trend for the usage of method that works on labor base. Incitemental salary system is one of these methods. In the company, the job essay studies are being done for the pplication of incitemental salary system. In this study, the company selected is evaluated in terms of production in different ways. For numerical evaluation, 1987 and 1988 figures are used and this evaluation showed that the years 1987 is more succesful in terms of productivity. This means that during the years 1988, for the same amount of output, more input was used. During numerical evaluation, partial productivities are also investigated. The aim of the partial productivity measurement in the company is to establish real addition of the production factors. In 1987, raw material and energy are the inputs that provide the most supplement to the output. On the other hand, in 1988, capital was the most important input. It has been seen that the problems in the application of productivity improvement methods are similiar to the problems in other companies. There is a rapid change in textile technology, and so textile engineer should keep up to date with the changes promptly and evaluate the methods promising productivity increases.. Productivity is important both for companies and for the national economy. The top role belongs to the management organizations that utilize and direct the possibilities and resources. Productivity should be taken as an inportant topic by the public because by productivity increase; 1. Workers work in more qualified environment and get more salary, 2. It provides resources for new investments to the employers, 3. It provides chaper and more products to the consumers. en_US Yüksek Lisans tr_TR
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü tr_TR
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights All works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject İşletme tr_TR
dc.subject Hazır giyim endüstrisi tr_TR
dc.subject Verimlilik tr_TR
dc.subject Üretim sistemleri tr_TR
dc.subject Business Administration en_US
dc.subject Ready made wear industry en_US
dc.subject Productivity en_US
dc.subject Production systems en_US
dc.title Bir konfeksiyon işletmesinin verimlilik açısından değerlendirilmesi tr_TR
dc.title.alternative Evaluation of an garment company in terms of productivity en_US
dc.type Tez tr_TR
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